The United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
The United Kingdom (or Great Britain) is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244.000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland (on the island of Great Britain), and Northern Ireland (on the island of Ireland). Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast respectively. The capital of the UK is London.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest cast, centre, and south-east — is a vast plain. Mountains are not  high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1.343 m).
There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, hut they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest one.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean, and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence on the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.
The UK is one of the world's smallest countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80 % of the population is urban.
The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft, and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, Head of the State is Queen. In practice, Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative, and the Liberal parties.


The USA

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada, and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a seaboarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 250 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera, and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley, which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part of the country is continental. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the leading producer of copper and oil and the worlds second producer of iron ore and coal. On the industrial enterprises of the country they produce aircrafts, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, weapon, furniture, and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, the Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including the Chinese and the native Americans — Indians.
The largest cities are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco, and others.
The United States is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, D. C. According to the Constitution of the USA, the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the juridical. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic.

Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the United States, but has only about a tenth as many people. About 28 million people live in Canada. About 80 % of the population live within 320 km of the southern border. Much of the rest of Canada is uninhabited or thinly populated because of severe natural conditions.
Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories. Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 1982 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. This symbolizes the country's strong ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain completely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain governed Canada's foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full independence.
Canada's people are. varied. About 57 % of all Canadians have some English ancestry and about 32 % have some French ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of the country. French Canadians, most of whom live in the provinces of Quebec, have kept the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people. Native people—American Indians and Eskimos — make up about 2 % of the country's population." 77 % of Canada's people live in cities or towns. Toronto and Montreal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of the country.
Today, maintaining a sense of community is one of the major problems in Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canadians in western and eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government does not pay enough attention to their problems. 80 % of Quebec's population are French Canadians. Many of them believe that their province should recieve a special recognition in the Canadian constitution.



Australia
Australia is a country in the Southern Hemisphere with a population of about 17 million people. It’s an independent member of the Commonwealth. The capital of the country is Canberra. The official language is English. Australia consists of an island Tasmania and six states: New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.
Australia has always been influenced by Britain. Speaking about the history of the country, it should be mentioned that at first it was a big colony for prisoners. Later, it became an ordinary country.
The main economic sector of the country is the service one, which includes tourism, education and financial services.
Australia’s biggest city is Sydney, which is situated in the state of New South Wales. This place is famous for its Blue Mountains, covered with forests of blue coloured eucalyptus trees. So, the air above is full of microscopic drops of eucalyptus oil and it is of a real blue colour in the sunshine.
The driest of all the states is South Australia with the only big river flowing there, that is called the Murray River. In former times it used to be South Australia’s main road, which transported people and goods. Tourists can ride old riverboats that are still kept in some towns on the river.
Tasmania, located in the south of Australia, differs from the other states. There are no deserts on the island. Most of the territory is covered with wild beautiful forests. There are lots of rains both in winter and summer. The population of Tasmania is about half a million people.
It should be said that Australia is home to beautiful nature as well as to such exotic animals as kangaroos, echidnas, koalas, dingoes and many others.







New Zealand
New Zealand is a very interesting country. It has got total area of 269,000 square kilometers. It is situated to south-east of Australia in the Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main islands (North Island and South Island) and some smaller ones. Nearly 3.5 million people live in the country. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. It is a financial centre too. The city was founded in 1840 and has been the capital since 1865. The official language Is English.
The climate of New Zealand is moist. New Zealand is rich in minerals. There are some main industries in the country, for example, iron and steel industry. The country has gas and petroleum. There are many mountains in New Zealand. The highest is Mount Cook (3,764 metres or 12,349 feet).
There are many rivers and lakes in the country. The chief rivers are the Waikato and the Wairu. You have heard about the native animals in the country. One of them is the kiwi. This interesting bird lives in the wet parts of the thick bushes. In the day-time the bird does not go out. It comes out only at night to find food. Kiwis cannot fly. Many years ago kiwis were hunted for food. Now the government does not permit the hunting the kiwis. The kiwi is now the symbol of New Zealand people. Small children are often called kiwis.
New Zealand is independent state, but formerly it is a part of the British
Empire. The head of the state is the Queen. New Zealand is self-governing state. The Parliament consists of one House only, the House of Representatives. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.
New Zealand has got heavy industry. There are many plants in the country. Paper and rubber industries are developed too. New Zealand exports wool, meat, butter.
There are some big cities such as Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dune-din, Nelson. Auckland and Wellington are the main ports of the country.
There are some educational and cultural institutions in Wellington. They are the University of New Zealand, Victoria University College and others. Victoria University was established in 1897.
New Zealand is a very interesting and beautiful country.

Russia
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world.  It occupies about one seventh part of dry land.  The vast territory of Russia lies in the Eastern part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia.  Its total area is over 17 million square kilometres.
Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans: the Atlantic, the Arctic, the Pacific.  The northern and eastern coasts of Russia are washed by the White Sea, the Barents Sea and the Okhotsk Sea.
The land of Russia varies a lot from heavy forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys.  Russia is located on two plains: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain.  The Urals is the longest mountain chain. It separates Europe from Asia.
There are various types of climate on the territory of Russia.  In the south the temperature is usually above zero all year round. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold.
Russia is a land of long rivers and deep lakes.  The Volga River is the longest river in Europe (3690 km).  It runs into the Caspian Sea. which is in reality, the largest lake in the world.  The Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.
Russia is rich in natural resources.  It has deposits of coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, nickel, etc. Russia borders on fourteen countries, including the former Republics of the USSR, which are now independent states.
The population of Russia is about 150 million people.
Now Russia (the Russian Federative Republic) is a Presidential Republic.  Today the state symbol of Russia is a three coloured banner.  It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red.  The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky, and the red one symbolizes liberty.  A new national emblem is a two-headed eagle.  It is the most ancient symbol of Russia.
Russia has always played an important role in the world. It is one of the leading Powers.



Our university

The Novosibirsk State Teacher Training University is one of the oldest institutions of our city where young people can get a higher education. In 1935 the Evening Teacher Training Institute was founded in Novosibirsk. There were only four departments in it. 109 students were trained there. In 1940 the Department for full-time students was opened. The first institute’s intake was 252 students. In 1968 the Institute began constructing a new building that was completed in 1975. The building was designed by the architect M.M. Pirogov. The campus includes educational buildings, the dining hall, the hospital, the sanatorium, the kindergarten, the workshops, the gymnasium, the stadium. Well-equipped laboratories and lecture-rooms with modern equipment: computers and a control system are at the students’ disposal. There is also a rich library with two reading-rooms, a beautiful conference hall, good hostels for students and postgraduates. There are also a lot of other facilities. Our University trains specialists for public education. There are about 10 thousand daytime students and 20 thousand of correspondence ones. There are different faculties and Institutes at our University. Among them there is the Faculty of Foreign Languages, the Faculty of Mathematics, the Faculty of Physics, the Faculty of Further Education, the Faculty of Psychology, the Faculty of Primary Schooling, the Faculty of Pre-school Pedagogics, the Sport Faculty, the Faculty of Technology and Business. And also the Institute of Natural Sciences and Economics, the Institute of History and Humanitarian Education, the Institute of Philology, Psychology and Mass Media, the Institute of Arts, the Institute of Advertisement and Public Relations. More than 60% of teachers’ staff have Candidate’s and Doctor’s degrees. They do important research work. Students can attend their lectures. They can also take part in their seminars and discuss various scientific problems with them. There are also many postgraduate students at our University. They must do research work and solve problems in various branches of science. The Academic year has two terms and twice a year the students take exams and credit tests. If they pass the exams well they get a grant.The students’ life is very interesting. They take an active part in the social life of the University. They often arrange the concerts of home talents, different contests. They also take part in sport competitions. The course of studies at the University lasts 5 years. After graduating from the University the students receive a secondary school teachers diploma. If the graduates have a gift for research work they can take a postgraduate course to improve their qualification and to get the right of teaching in universities, institutes and colleges. Many graduates of our University now work in different parts of the country and some of them hold major posts. We have every reason to be proud of our University.


Higher Education in Great Britain
(Высшее образование в Великобритании)

After finishing secondary school or college you can apply to a university, polytechnic, college of education or you can continue to study in a college of further education.
The academic year in Britain's universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of education is divided into 3 terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the middle of December, the middle of January to the end of March, from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July.
There are 46 universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol and Birmingham.
Good A-level results in at least 2 subjects are necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. For all British citizens a place at a university brings with it a grant from their local education authority.
English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction and way of student life.
After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Some courses, such as languages and medicine, may be one or two years longer. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies. Later he/she may continue to take Master's Degree and then a Doctor's Degree.
The 2 intellectual eyes of Britain – Oxford & Cambridge Universities – date from the 12 & 13 centuries. They are known for all over the world and are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge, but both of them are completely independent. Only education elite go to Oxford and Cambridge.
The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen & Edinburgh date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
In the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries the so-called Redbrick universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, and Birmingham. During the late sixties and early seventies some 20 'new' universities were set up. Sometimes they are called 'concrete and glass' universities. Among them are the universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others.
During these years the government set up 30 Polytechnics. The Polytechnics, like the universities, offer first and higher degrees. Some of them offer full-time and sandwich courses [sandwich course курс обучения, чередующий теорию с практикой; сочетание общеобразовательного и профессионального обучения с работой на производстве] (for working students). Colleges of Education provide two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the graduate specializes in some Particular subjects.
Some of them who decide to leave school at the age of 16 may go to a further education college where they can follow a course in typing, engineering, town planning, cooking, or hairdressing, full-time or part-time. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry.
There's an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It's intended for people who study in their own free time and who 'attend' lectures by watching TV and listening to the radio. They keep in touch by phone and letter with their tutors and attend summer schools. The Open University students have no formal qualifications and would be unable to enter ordinary universities.
Some 80,000 overseas students study at British universities or further education colleges or train in nursing, law, banking or in industry.

Education in Russia

Education is an important part of modern life. Originally Russian education starts from the early age. Children can start going to kindergarten from the age of two, but this is not a compulsory education. It depends on parents’ decision and child’s wish to attend this institution.  In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils start going to school from the age of seven and till 16. Mandatory education in Russia is presented by three types of schools: primary, secondary and high. The primary school teaches its pupils elementary skills, such as reading, writing, counting. Many schools also offer foreign languages or some other special disciplines at this age. The most important period is the secondary school, which starts from the 4th or 5th grade, depending on school. This is the time when children start learning Biology, Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Computing, and many other new subjects. At the 9th grade children face a very important period in their life. They have to choose whether to continue school education, or to leave for other types of educational institutions, such as college, specialized schools and else. If the pupil decides to continue studying in high school, which lasts for two years, he can enter the university after school graduation. Of course, it’s only the general pattern of education in Russia, but there can also be some exceptions nowadays. For example, there are lots of special schools, where they pay attention only to particular subjects. Also, apart from state schools, there are a number of private schools, where education is not free of charge. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their educaton in institutes or universities

Education in the USA


The system of education in the USA varies greatly from state to state. School education in so called state public schools is free. Parents are free to choose any public school for their children. Although there are a lot of private schools, mainly religious, and parents have to pay for them. A school year starts in September and ends in June. It is divided into three terms or four quarters.
American children start attending elementary schools at the age of 6. They continue their studies for eight years there (8 grades). Their basic subjects in the curriculum at this stage are English, Arithmetic, Natural Science, History, Geography, Foreign Language and some others. After that pupils may enter a Senior high school or if they go to a 5- or 6-year elementary school, they then attend a 3- or 4-year Junior high school, and then enter a Senior high school. Pupils graduate from high schools at the age of 18. The high schools (also known as secondary schools) are generally larger and accommodate teenagers from four or five elementary schools. During the school year the students study four or five selective subjects according to their professional interests. They must complete a certain number of courses to receive a high school diploma or a certificate of school graduation.
In order to develop social skills and encourage students’ participation in extracurricular activities every high school has an orchestra, a music band, a choir, drama groups, football, basketball and baseball teams. School becomes the center of social life for students.
At American colleges and universities young people get higher education. They study for 4 years and get a Bachelor's degree in arts or science. If a student wants to get a Master's degree he must study for two more years and do a research work. Students who want to advance their education even further in a specific field can pursue a Doctor degree. The most famous American universities are Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, Yale, Columbia Universities.
Последнее изменение: Среда, 24 Октябрь 2018, 17:05