Э.В. Усенкова, Е.А. Костина
ВТОРАЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЬ -
(для студентов II курса)
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ГОУ ВПО «НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
ФАКУЛЬТЕТ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ
Э.В. Усенкова, Е.А. Костина
ВТОРАЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЬ –
(для студентов II курса)
Допущено Учебно-методическим объединением
по направлениям педагогического образования
Министерства образования и науки РФ
в качестве учебно-методического пособия
для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по направлению 540300 (050300)
УДК – 811.111 (075.8)
ББК – 81.432.1 – 923
канд. филол. наук, доцент ГОУ ВПО «Новосибирский государственный
канд. филол. наук, доцент ГОУ ВПО «Томский государственный
А - 647 Усенкова Э.В., Костина Е.А.
Вторая специальность – английский язык (для студентов II курса): Учебно-методическое пособие. – Новосибирск, 2008. – 217 с.
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, изучающих английский язык первый год как дополнительную специальность, а также для широкого круга лиц, желающих совершенствовать свои знания английского языка.
Цель пособия – привить навыки устной и письменной речи по предложенным разговорным темам и сообщить сведения по грамматике на элементарном уровне.
УДК – 811.111 (075.8)
ББК – 81.432.1 – 923
© ГОУ ВПО «Новосибирский государственный
© Усенкова Элеонора Валерьевна,
Костина Екатерина Алексеевна
PART I. TOPICS 7
Family Life 7
Work and Leisure 76
Weather and Seasons 90
PART II. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 108
The Article 108
The Pronoun 114
The Adjective 117
The Numeral 120
The Verb ‘to be’ 120
Introductory ‘There be’ 121
The Verb ‘to have’ 121
The Adverb 122
English Verbal Forms 124
The Present Continuous Tense 124
The Present Indefinite Tense 126
The Present Perfect Tense 129
The Past Continuous Tense 131
The Past Indefinite Tense 134
The Future Continuous Tense 135
The Future Indefinite Tense 137
PART III. GRAMMAR EXERCISES 140
The Article 140
The Pronoun 144
The Adjective 150
The Numeral 158
The Verb ‘to be’ 160
Introductory ‘There be’ 164
The Verb ‘to have’ 168
The Adverb 175
The Present Continuous Tense 180
The Present Indefinite Tense 181
The Present Continuous Tense and The Present Indefinite Tense 184
The Past Indefinite Tense 189
The Past Continuous Tense 192
The Future Continuous Tense 197
The Future Indefinite Tense 200
The Present Perfect Tense 206
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов II курса факультета иностранных языков, начинающих изучать английский как второй язык, и представляет собой набор устных разговорных и грамматических тем, расположенных в порядке возрастания сложности.
Основная цель данного пособия – сообщить студентам, не изучавшим в школе английский язык, знания по лексике и грамматике английского языка, а студентам, у которых уже имеется определенная языковая база, – новые и довольно глубокие знания по данным аспектам языка. Наша главная задача – привить студентам элементарные навыки и умения в практическом применении знаний, полученных при изучении лексического и грамматического материала.
Пособие состоит из трех частей. Первая часть включает такие устные темы, как «Семейная жизнь», «Внешность», «Дом», «Работа и отдых», а также тему «Погода и времена года». Каждый раздел содержит объемный тематический вокабуляр и набор упражнений, направленных на обучение и развитие устной речи. Во вторую часть вошел грамматический материал, объясняющий правила употребления артиклей, местоимений, прилагательных, наречий, числительных, глаголов ‘to be’, ‘to have’, оборота ‘there be’. Этот материал упрощен и написан на английском языке. Другая часть грамматического материала, касающаяся временной системы английского глагола и всегда вызывающая наибольшие трудности у изучающих английский язык, представлена на русском языке. Третий раздел – это практическая часть, снабженная большим количеством упражнений на изучаемые правила.
PART I. TOPICS
parents: grandfather/grandmother родители: дедушка, бабушка
brother, sister, son, daughter брат, сестра, сын, дочь
husband, wife, child, children муж, жена, ребенок, дети
aunt, uncle тетя, дядя
cousin двоюродный брат/сестра
niece, nephew племянница/племянник
father-in-law, mother-in-law отец/мать жены (мужа)
in-laws родственники жены, мужа
to bring-up/to raise воспитывать
well-brought up хорошо воспитанный
to look after смотреть, ухаживать за (детьми, больными)
baby-sitter тот, кто остается с детьми в отсутствие родителей
to get along (well) (хорошо) жить вместе, уживаться
to respect уважать
to quarrel ссориться
Phrases to Remember
(At) what age did he (she) marry? В каком возрасте он женился (она вышла замуж)?
He (she) married at the age of... Он женился в возрасте… (Она вышла замуж в возрасте…)
Are you married? Вы женаты (замужем)?
No, I'm single/not married; I'm a bachelor. Нет, я не замужем/не женат; я холостяк.
CHARACTER. APPEARANCE XAPAKTEP. ВНЕШНОСТЬ
cheerful веселый, жизнерадостный
modest, shy скромный, застенчивый
PROFESSION. OCCUPATION. JOB (Am.). ПРОФЕССИЯ. ЗАНЯТИЕ. РАБОТА
designer конструктор, чертежник
official административный работник
book-keeper/accountant (Am.) бухгалтер
Phrases to Remember
What does he do? Чем он занимается?
What's his job/occupation? Его профессия/работа?
What profession are you going to choose/to follow? Какую профессию вы собираетесь выбрать?
HOUSE WORK/HOME CHORES (Am.) ДОМАШНЯЯ РАБОТА
to keep house вести домашнее хозяйство
to help about the house помогать по дому
to polish the floor натирать пол
to clean/dust the room убирать/вытирать пыль в комнате
to make the bed убирать постель
to cook meals готовить пищу
to lay the table накрывать на стол
to wash up/to do the dishes мыть посуду
to go/to do (the) shopping ходить за покупками/делать покупки
Phrases to Remember
What a mess! Какой беспорядок!
I'll clean the mess (do the room) in no time! Я приведу все в порядок (уберу комнату) моментально.
Now your room is in (ship-shape) order! Теперь ваша комната в (полном) порядке.
I. Read the text. Memorize it. Speak about Mr Black’s children. Speak about Mr Black’s family. Speak about your family. Be ready to present a conversation about your family and your friend’s family.
This is my family: my wife, my son, my daughter and I. I am Mr Black. My wife is Mrs Black. I’m Mrs Black’s husband. We have two children, a boy and a girl. The boy’s name is John, he is twelve years old. The girl’s name is Mary. She is still quite young. She is only eight. She is four years younger than John, and John is four years older than she is. Mary is the youngest in the family and I’m the oldest. John is Mary’s brother, Mary is John’s sister. John is my son. I’m his father. My wife is his mother. Mary is my daughter. I’m her father. My wife is her mother. John and Mary are our children. I am their father, my wife is their mother. We are their parents. We love our children.
My wife is sitting in an armchair, reading a book. I’m standing by the window, smoking a pipe. Mary is writing a letter. John is kneeling on the floor, playing with his train.
II. Read the dialogue “Questions and Answers”. Learn the text by heart.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
– Who am I?
– You are Mr Black.
– Whose husband am I?
– Mrs Black’s husband.
– What’s my son’s name?
– His name is John.
– What is your name?
– My name is Peter Jones.
– Have I got one child or two?
– You have two children.
– Is Mary my daughter?
– Yes, she is.
– How old is she?
– She is eight.
– What is she doing?
– She is writing a letter.
– Is she standing or sitting?
– She is sitting.
– What is John playing with?
– He is playing with his train.
– Has John got any brothers?
– No, he hasn’t.
– Have you got any brothers?
– Yes, I have.
– How many?
– Who is smoking a pipe?
– You are.
– Do you smoke?
– No, I don’t.
– Does your father smoke?
– Yes, he does.
– Does your mother smoke?
– No, she doesn’t.
– Do women smoke?
– Some do, and some don’t.
III. Listen, memorize, reproduce.
Ann: How old is your father-in-law?
Bob: (He is) fifty, getting on 60.
Ann: Doesn’t he look old for his age?
Bob: Not at all. I believe he looks youngish.
John: Phil, you have a funny name, haven't you?
Phil: Yes, it is short for “Philip”. I was named after my uncle who was very much respected by my parents.
John: I see. But didn’t you think of taking up another name?
Phil: I really did, and even consulted my relatives but they are against it.
(Jerry meets his old school friend Bill and introduces him to his family.)
Jerry: Bill, it’s good to see you again. How’ve you been?
Bill: Fine, Jerry. You haven’t changed at all.
Jerry: Thanks, old chap! Do you have a few minutes to spare? I’d like you to meet my family.
Bill: Yes, certainly.
Jerry: This is my wife Kate, my son Jim and my daughter Caroline. And this is Bill Jones.
Bill: I’m very pleased to meet you.
Kate: We’re happy to meet you, Bill. Jerry often talks about you. Please, come to see us.
Bill: It’s very kind of you to invite me!
Peter: Hi, Bob! You look tip-top!
Bob: Well, I’ve worked out a “keep fit”1 programme.
Peter: Any good news from home?
Bob: Oh yes, and very pleasant. My family moved into a three-room flat in a new ten-storeyed building. It’s only a four-block walk from the centre.
Peter: Congratulations! As for my family, we’re on the waiting list for a new flat; our house is due for demolition.
Bob: Are the prospects cheerful?
Peter: Yes. Quite so!
1 to keep fit – to be strong and well; in good health
IV. Answer the questions. Use the following opening phrases when possible.
as to/as for; on the whole; (not) as a rule; actually/in fact; frankly/strictly speaking; I believe/suppose; it/that depends
1. What do your parents do? 2. Are you single or married? 3. How do you get on/along with your relatives (in-laws)? 4. Where do you come from? 5. What’s your home town? 6. In what area of the town do you live? 7. What floor is your flat on? 8. What’s your room/flat like? Is your furniture new? 9. What time-saving gadgets (convenient small appliances e.g. electrical toaster, mixer etc.) have you got? 10. What home electrical appliances can you repair yourself? 11. How are housekeeping duties divided among the members of your family? 12. Do you help much about the house? 13. What kind of home chores do you have? 14. What house work do you particularly dislike?
V. Agree or disagree with the statements or express your surprise. Give your reason. Make use of the following words and phrases.
Certainly/not; Naturally; I hope so; That’s right; I don’t think so; I’m afraid not; Really? (Are you) joking? Are you sure? I’m not sure about it; Do you think so? No doubt about it.
1. They say you’re an ideal son/daughter. 2. I hear you’re getting married. 3. Your girl-friend (wife)/boy-friend (husband) is very attractive. 4. You’ve got a very nice flat. 5. They say you have to do a lot of house work. 6. I’m an old bachelor; I’ll never marry. 7. You have no housekeeping duties at all. 8. I’ve heard you’re good at fixing all kinds of electrical appliances/gadgets. 9. I’m sure your room is always ship-shape. 10. I always make a mess when cooking.
VI. Read the dialogue and act it.
THE ENGLISH HOME
Simon: Sorry, Mrs Collins, I’m afraid we're late. This is my friend Herr Winter. He is our guest from Berlin.
Mrs Collins: How do you do, Herr Winter. Glad to meet you.
Winter: How do you do, Mrs Collins.
Mrs Collins: Please come in! Take off your coats. We’ll go into the sitting-room.
Simon: You have got a very nice flat, Mrs Collins.
Mrs Collins: Thank you, I am glad you like my home.
Winter: Well, it was really very kind of you to invite us to tea.
Mrs Collins: Oh, that’s all right. Please, have some bread and butter. Do you take milk?
Simon: Thank you, we’ll have some bread and butter, but we are not used to drinking tea with milk.
Winter: How many rooms do you have, Mrs Collins, besides the sitting-room?
Mrs Collins: Well, we have my husband’s study, the bedroom, the nursery, the kitchen and the bath-room.
Simon: By the way, do your children go to school?
Mrs Collins: Yes, we’ve got two, Jane and Thomas, aged two and five. But only Thomas goes to school.
Winter: Does Thomas go to school at the age of five? Our children start school at the age of six.
Mrs Collins: Why, yes, all our children go to school at the age of five.
Simon: That seems to be a photograph of little Jane, there over the fireplace.
Winter: The fireplace is typical of the English home, I think.
Mrs Collins: You are quite right, Herr Winter. The English like to sit by the fire in a big, soft armchair.
VII. Memorize and practise the formula of politeness.
Simon: I’m afraid we are late. I’m really very sorry.
Mrs Collins: Never mind. That’s all right.
VIII. Make up a dialogue using the dialogue THE ENGLISH HOME as a model.
Situation: You’ve invited a friend to meet your family and see your home.
1. Introduce him to your family (relatives). 2. Show him your home.
IX. Read the dialogue and act it.
THE AMERICAN HOME
T.: Good morning, Mr Manning. How are you?
M.: Fine, thank you. How are you, Mr Tard?
T.: Fine, thanks. I’m on my way home. Do you want to see my new house?
M.: Yes, I do. Is it far?
T.: No, it’s quite near. Here is our house.
M.: You have a beautiful yard, Mr Tard.
T.: Thank you. My family enjoys it very much. We spend a lot of time here in summer. Please come in.
M.: Your living-room is very attractive. I like your large windows.
T.: We like plenty of light.
M.: Is your furniture new? It seems quite modern.
T.: Yes, it’s new. My wife and I like modern furniture. It’s very comfortable.
M.: Do you have a bedroom downstairs?
T.: No, our bedrooms are upstairs. Downstairs we have a living-room, a dining-room and a kitchen. We have a bathroom downstairs too. It has a toilet and a washbasin.
M.: Do you have a large family, Mr Tard?
T.: We have three children. Our two boys have their room and the baby-girl has her room. They use the yard for their playroom in summer.
X. Speak about the American home.
1. Do many Americans have homes like that? 2. Are there homeless people in the USA? Why? 3. What can you say about the housing problem in Russia?
Speech Patterns to the Dialogue
1. He’s going to buy a new flat. Он собирается купить новую квартиру.
2. She’s delighted with the prospect/plan/idea. Она в восторге от этой перспективы/плана/идеи.
3. He would like to move out of this town. Он хотел бы уехать из этого города.
4. They would prefer to stay here. Они предпочли бы остаться здесь.
5. If I were in your place, I would do the same. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы сделал то же самое.
XII. Practise the patterns in examples of your own.
XIII. Read the dialogue.
SHEILA IS GETTING MARRIED
Pat: Did you see Sheila in the office this morning, Jane?
Jane: No, I didn’t. She has a day off.
Pat: Then you probably don’t know the great news.
Jane: What great news?
Pat: Sheila’s getting married.
Jane: What? You’re joking, Pat.
Pat: Not at all. I have it on the best authority. I met Sheila’s mother this morning.
Jane: If I didn’t know you so well, Pat, I wouldn’t believe a word of what you're saying. Why hasn’t Sheila said anything about it?
Pat: It’s only just been settled, I believe. It’s a top secret. Don’t broadcast it. Guess who she’s marrying?
Jane: Why, Robert of course.
Pat: Not at all. Robert is a confirmed bachelor.
Jane: But, Pat, she and Robert ... I thought.
Pat: I thought just the same. But Sheila’s marrying a certain Mr Frank Bennett, five years older than herself, steady, hard-working and quite good-looking.
Jane: What? Have you seen him?
Pat: I’ve seen his photograph. Sheila’s mother seems to be delighted with the whole prospect.
Jane: Well. What does he do, this ... this son-in-law?
Pat: He is something or other on the Local Council in Watford. They’re going to live there when they’re married. He’s going to get a Council flat.
Jane: I wouldn’t like to move out of London for anything.
Pat: I believe they would also prefer to stay in London if they had anywhere to live.
Jane: If Sheila’s parents had a larger house, they might perhaps stay there for a time.
Pat: I don’t think Sheila would like that. I wouldn’t if I were in her place.
Jane: Well, so long! Phone me if there is some red-hot news on the horizon.
Words and Phrases
to believe верить, думать, полагать
to guess угадывать, думать
to settle the matter/problem решить вопрос, проблему
confirmed bachelor убежденный холостяк
Local Council Местный Совет
Phrases to Remember
You’re joking! Вы шутите!
Not at all! Нисколько! Вовсе нет!
It's a top secret. Это большой секрет.
Don’t broadcast it! Не разглашайте это.
I have it on the best authority. Я знаю это из достоверного источника.
Phone me if there is some red-hot news. Позвоните мне, если будут какие-нибудь свежие новости.
XIV. Make up a dialogue or speak on the topic: “Our friend is getting married”.
Speech Patterns to the Text
1. It takes half an hour to get to the station (or a lot of time to master the language). Нужно полчаса, чтобы добраться до вокзала (или много времени, чтобы овладеть языком).
2. I have no time left to discuss the matter. У меня нет/не остается времени, чтобы обсудить этот вопрос.
3. There were two months left to get ready for the exams. Оставалось два месяца, чтобы подготовиться к экзамену.
4. No matter what you do, you should do it well. Что бы вы ни делали, вы должны делать это хорошо.
XV. Practise the patterns in examples of your own.
XVI. Read the text.
STARTING THE DAY
After Charles Mergendahl
Half of Campton awoke at 6:50, the other half at 7:04. The 6:50 risers were those who did not trust their alarm clocks, who enjoyed taking their time in the bathrooms, who liked to discuss the weather and what they should wear on this particular business day. Their morning started something like this: alarm clock at 6:50, out of bed at 6:52, shaved and showered by 7:05, coffee and bacon put on at 7:06, then dressing till 7:15. At 7:15 the eggs were frying and the toaster plugged in. By 7:20 they were seated in the kitchen for breakfast. They liked to eat slowly, and did not rise from the table until 7:40, after two cups of coffee and two cigarettes.
Since the train did not leave until 8:04, and the drive to the station took 8 minutes, there were still 12 minutes left to play with the children, listen to the morning news on the radio, or discuss finances with the wife. Then, by leaving the house at 7:52, they reached the station at 8 sharp, with still four minutes left in the case the train was early – which it never was.
The 7:04 risers, on the other hand, combined lethargy (бездеятельность) with energy. They believed in the theory that no matter where you live, it should take exactly one hour from bed to train. They enjoyed their extra fourteen minutes' sleep, and felt a secret superiority over the 6:50 risers. Most of them had to satisfy themselves with corn flakes and instant coffee for breakfast, and had to wear any pants or ties which were lying handy. They left for the station at 4 minutes to 8, took 6 instead of 8 minutes to get there and never missed the train – a fact that rather disappointed the earlier risers.
Words and Phrases
to awake просыпаться
to rise вставать
early riser человек, который рано встает
to trust (the alarm clock) доверять, полагаться (на будильник)
to wear (suits, pants, ties) носить (костюмы, брюки, галстуки)
to be/lie handy быть/находиться под рукой
to shave бриться
to fry (eggs) жарить (яичницу)
to plug in включать (электрические приборы)
instant coffee растворимый кофе
to disappoint разочаровывать(ся)
Phrases to Remember
at 8 (o'clock) sharp точно в 8 (часов)
extra (15) minutes лишние (15) минут
on this particular day именно в этот день
XVII. Mind the following word formation and translate them into Russian.
an early riser, a late comer, a noisy sleeper, a light eater, a heavy smoker, a good-looker.
XVIII. Translate the sentences. Mind different meanings of the verb “to miss”:
I never miss trains (planes, ships).
I seldom miss lectures.
I always miss my old friends.
I miss you badly.
XIX. Make up sentences using the verb “to miss”.
XX. Explain the joke.
Professor: You missed my class yesterday, didn't you?
Student: Not at all, sir.
XXI. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reason. The following phrases may be helpful.
That’s right; It’s partly true; No doubt; I quite agree here; That (greatly) depends (on)...; I don’t think so; I shouldn’t say so; I doubt it greatly; I can’t agree here; Not as a rule.
1. Most working people are early risers. 2. Everybody enjoys extra hour sleep on Sunday (a day off). 3. Lots of people like to discuss the weather in the morning before leaving for their work. 4. Most people never miss a chance of listening to the morning news on the radio. 5. When in a hurry we have to satisfy ourselves with light breakfast only. 6. No matter where you live, it should take not more than one hour from bed to tram (bus, metro). 7. Most people have no time to think what they should wear on this particular workday. 8. Most married men like discussing finances with their wives.
XXII. Speak about: a) starting the day (as it is described in the text); b) your starting the day (on a work day, on a day off).
XXIII. Read the text.
After Arthur Halley
It was a three-block walk from the bus to the nursery school where Juanita had left her little daughter this morning on her way to work. Juanita hurried, knowing she was late. The little girl ran toward her as she entered the small school playroom in the basement of a private house. Though the house, like others in the area, was old and in disrepair, the schoolrooms were clean and cheerful – the reason Juanita had chosen the school in preference to others, though the cost was higher and it was hard for her to pay. It was obvious from the stillness around that the other children were all gone. Miss Ferroe, who owned and ran the school, came in and looked pointedly (многозначительно) at her watch. “Mrs Nunez, as a special favour I agreed that Estella could stay after the others, but this is far too late... Other parents observe the school’s closing time.”
“It won’t happen again, I promise,” said Juanita. “Very well. But since you are here, Mrs Nunez, may I remind you that last month’s bill for Estella had not been paid.” “I really am sorry, Miss Ferroe. It will be paid on Friday. I’ll have my paycheck then.” The school fees, Juanita decided, would have to come out of her pay this week, as she had said, and somehow she must manage until the payday after that. She wasn’t sure how.
Her wage as a teller at the bank was $ 83. Out of that there was food to buy for the two of them, Estella’s school fees, plus rent of the tiny flat they lived in; also the finance company would demand a payment since she had missed the last. Before Carlos, her husband, left her, simply walking out and disappearing a year ago, Juanita had been naive enough to sign finance papers together with her husband. He had bought suits, a used car, a colour TV on credit, all of which he took with him. Juanita, however, was still paying and the installments seemed to stretch on into a limitless future.
Words and Phrases
private house дом частного владельца
house in disrepair дом, нуждающийся в ремонте
to own (the school) владеть (школой)
basement полуподвальный (цокольный) этаж
nursery school детский сад
nursery school fees плата за пребывание в детском саду
to run the school руководить/заведовать школой
to remind of/about напоминать
to demand требовать
to sign подписывать
teller (Am.)/cashier кассир
wage жалованье, заработная плата
cost цена, плата, стоимость
social security deductions вычеты по социальному обеспечению
Phrases to Remember
payday день выдачи/получения заработной платы
to pay the bill (the rent) платить по счету (платить за квартиру)
to pay installments платить взносы за покупку в кредит
payment (rent) уплата, плата (за квартиру)
to miss the payment не заплатить в срок
to buy on credit покупать в кредит
to observe rules/regulations соблюдать правила/порядок
as a special favour как особая любезность
XXIV. Disagree with the negative statements. Give your reason. The following models may be helpful.
Teacher: She was not late.
Student: Yes, she was, therefore she hurried.
Teacher: You needn’t return.
Student: Yes, I must, the sooner, the better.
1. You shouldn’t hurry if you’re late. 2. When the house is in disrepair, we can’t do anything about it. 3. Parents needn’t observe nursery school closing time. 4. We needn’t follow traffic rules when it is not a rush hour. 5. You needn’t pay your rent check until you’re reminded. 6. If you buy things on credit, you don’t sign any finance papers. 7. You should not pay installments regularly when you buy things on credit.
XXV. Translate the sentences into Russian. Mind different meanings of the verb “to use”.
1. He used a lot of French words in his speech as he used to live in France in his childhood. 2. He was not used to walking long distances. 3. Our friends used to come to see us very often when they lived next door. 4. Cinemas used to be more crowded than they are now. 5. Sailors get used to rough weather sooner or later. 6. He has bought a used car. 7. We’ve got used to watching TV daily.
XXVI. Make up sentences of your own using the phrases given in Exercise XXIII.
XXVII. Make up 10 questions on the text.
XXVIII. Discuss Juanita’s family worries: her low wage, high rent and nursery school fees, installment pay.
Speech Patterns to the Text
1. As he expected... Как он и ожидал…
2. Without wasting time he... Не тратя зря времени, он…
3. He would change his plans if... Он изменил бы свои планы, если бы…
XXIX. Complete the sentences given above in speech patterns.
XXX. Read the text.
IS AMERICAN HOME A CITADEL?
After Arthur Halley
A list of branch bank officials, kept in the security department, contained Miles Easton’s home address and telephone number. Nolan Wainwright, the chief of Security Department, copied down both. He knew the address. It was a residential area about two miles from downtown.
Leaving Headquarters Building, the security chief used a pay phone to dial the telephone number and heard the ringing continue unanswered. He already knew Miles was a bachelor and he was hoping he also lived alone. If the phone had been answered, Wainwright would have made an excuse about a wrong number and changed his plans.
As it was, he now walked toward his car, parked in the Headquarters basement garage. He then drove across the town. He walked toward the apartment building observing all details. A three-storey building probably forty years old and showing signs of disrepair. He guessed it contained two dozen or so apartments.
No doorman was visible.
Inside a vestibule Nolan Wainwright could see rows of mail boxes and call buttons. Double glass doors opened from the street to the vestibule, beyond them was a more solid door, undoubtedly locked. The time was 10:30. Traffic on the street was light. Nobody was seen near the apartment house. He went in. Next to the mail boxes were three rows of buzzers and a speaker-phone. Wainwright saw the name “Easton” and depressed the button beside it. As he expected, there was no answer. Guessing that Apartment 2G indicated the second floor, he then pressed a bell button with the prefix 3. A man’s voice on the speaker phone said: “Who is it?” The name beside the button was Appleby. Wainwright said: “Telegram for Appleby.” “Okay, bring it up.” Behind the heavy interior door a buzzer sounded and a lock clicked open: Wainwright opened the door and went in quickly. Immediately ahead was a self-operating lift which he ignored. He saw a stairway to the right and went up it to the second floor. Apartment 2G was near the end of the second floor corridor and the lock proved uncomplicated. On the fourth try the door was opened and he went in, closing it behind him. He found a light switch and turned it on. The apartment was small, designed for use by one person; it was a single room divided into areas. A living-room space contained a sofa, an armchair, a portable TV, a meal table. A bed was located behind a partition; the kitchenette had folding doors. Two other doors which Wainwright checked revealed a bathroom and a storage closet. The place was orderly and clean. Several shelves of books and a few framed prints added a touch of personality. Without wasting time, security department chief began a systematic thorough search, being sure if evidence existed, he would find it.
Words and Phrases
branch bank отделение банка
bank official банковский служащий
security department служба безопасности
head quarters главное управление
pay phone телефон общественного пользования
to dial the telephone number набрать номер телефона
basement (полу)подвальное помещение
doorman (Am.) швейцар
rows of mail boxes ряды почтовых ящиков
call buttons/buzzers (Am.) дверные звонки
lock; locked door (дверной) замок, запертая дверь
folding doors раздвижные двери
framed prints репродукции в рамках
thorough search тщательный обыск
added a touch of personality давали представление о хозяине квартиры (зд.)
evidence улики, доказательства
Phrases to Remember
the lock proved uncomplicated замок оказался простым
on the fourth try при четвертой попытке
XXXI. Complete the story. Try to guess what kind of evidence the chief of security department was looking for.
XXXII. Describe: a) the Apartment house; b) the procedure of getting into Apartment 2G; c) the interior of Apartment 2G.
XXXIII. Translate it into English.
1. У Мэри есть брат или сестра? 2. Какую профессию собирается выбрать твоя племянница? 3. Моя сестра на 5 лет младше меня. 4. Пётр – убежденный холостяк. 5. Лора не замужем. (2 варианта) 6. Кейт вышла замуж в возрасте 20 лет. У нее был очень умный и красивый жених. 7. Материнская любовь не знает предела. 8. У них родились близнецы. 9. Какой беспорядок! 10. Это большой секрет. Не разглашай его. 11. Пэт вышла замуж за некоего мистера Блэка. 12. Свекровь Лизы – просто ангел. 13. Ненси и Рэй – молодожены. 14. Ее муж уравновешенный, трудолюбивый и импозантный человек. 15. Мои соседи встают рано. 16. Мы очень скучаем по тебе. 17. У миссис Смит такие милые внуки. 18. У Тома еще живы прадедушка и прабабушка. 19. Ее отец заядлый курильщик. 20. Недавно эта семья усыновила ребенка.
XXXIV. Arrange a talk on the topic “Family life”. Read the following information. What family problems are there in the lives of English people? Do the same problems exist in Russian families? Mind the words in bold type.
There are many different views on family life. Some people could not do without the support and love of their families. Others say it is the source of most of our problems and anxieties. Whatever the truth is, the family is definitely a powerful symbol. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you will see advertisements featuring happy, balanced families. Politicians often try to win votes by standing for “family values”: respect for parental authority, stability in marriage, chastity [chastity: not taking part in wrong or unlawful sexual activity] and care for the elderly.
Sociologists divide families into two general types: the nuclear family and the extended family, which may include three or more generations living together. In industrialized countries, and increasingly in the large cities of developing countries, the nuclear family is regarded as normal. Most people think of it as consisting of two parents and two children. In fact, the number of households containing a nuclear family is shrinking year by year.
There are people who say that the family unit in Britain is in crisis and that traditional family life is a thing of the past. This is of great concern to those who think a healthy society is dependent upon a stable family life. They see many indications that the family is in decline, in such things as the acceptance of sex before marriage, the increased number of one-parent families, the current high divorce rate and what they see as a lack of discipline within the family. Some politicians blame social problems, such as drug taking and juvenile crime, on a disintegrating family life.
Concern that the family is in a state of crisis is not new in Britain. In the nineteenth century, many legislators and reformers were saying the same. It was also a concern between the two World Wars, and in the 1980s it became a continuous political issue.
There is no definition of a “normal” family. Broadly speaking, the family is a group of people related by blood or law, living together or associating with one another for a common purpose. That purpose is usually to provide shelter and food, and to bring up children. The nature of the family keeps changing: there are a number of types of family that exist in a society at any one time.
What do people consider to be “normal family” in Russia? Do you think there is an ideal family situation?
Many people think there was once a golden age in which the world was filled with happy families. The mother ran the house, and the father went out to work to bring back enough money for this ideal family to live its life. The family – mother, father and three or four healthy, happy children – would go out for an occasional treat. Roles were very clear for the parents and children. Discipline within the family unit was strong, and moral standards were high. This image is the kind of family life people mean when they talk about “Victorian values”.
It is doubtful whether many families ever lived such a life, especially in Victorian times. Working hours were long for most families, and children were often poorly fed and badly clothed. The vision of a golden age is based perhaps on how we think perfect family life should be.
Some sociologists argue that the nature of the family is constantly changing and that there is no point in making comparisons with families of a generation ago. However, people continue to hope for actable family life. Marriage has not gone out of fashion; although the number of divorces has increased, so has the number of divorced people who will marry again.
What is clear about Britain in the 1990s is that it is more socially acceptable to have alternative life styles, relationships and ways of bringing up children than it has ever been. It is also easier to remove oneself from an unhappy family situation. In most social groups, divorce is no longer seen as taboo. One-parent families are common. Many children are given more freedom when young; when they move away from home, they move earlier (usually at around 18), and go further. People experiment with relationships before committing themselves to marriage and there is greater acceptance of homosexual relationships. In Britain’s multi-cultural society there are many examples of different ways of living. Nowadays, our primary sexual characteristics – whether we are men or women – no longer seem to completely dictate what roles we should take in life.
Was there a “golden age” of the family in Russia? What role do discipline and moral standards have in your country? Do you have an equivalent of “Victorian values”? How does “traditional” family life differ from British family life in the 1990s? Is it the same in Russia?
Until relatively recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home. Sometimes women did voluntary work, especially those of the middle classes. However, most women’s main (unpaid) labour was to run the home and look after their family. Whether they did this themselves or supervised other people doing it was a matter of class and money. By entering the labour market, women have now altered the face of family life. As the role of the woman in the family changed, so did the role of the man.
Recent legal changes have given women new opportunities. In 1970, the Equal Pay Act attempted to stop discrimination against women in the field of employment. In 1975 the Sex Discrimination Act was a further attempt to protect women in employment, education and other areas. The 1975 Employment Protection Act gave women the right to maternity leave.
In Britain today women make up 44% of the workforce, and nearly half the mothers with children under five years old are in paid work. It is not uncommon to find that the mother is the main breadwinner. The incentives for women to work or to return to work are increasing all the time, but there are still problems for women who want or have to work.
Although there is a greater acceptance of men taking more of an interest in child care and domestic duties, studies show that men’s and women’s roles have not changed as much as could be expected. In most families working women are still mothers, housekeepers and income providers. There is a stigma [a reputation of shame or dishonour] attached to the phenomenon of 'latch key kids' [children who have their own key to their home because there is no one to let them in after school.]. Society expects someone – usually the mother – to be there. Because of the difficulties of combining the mother role with the demands of a career, women’s work also tends to be low-paid and irregular.
Britain is old-fashioned as regards maternity leave [paid time off for a woman who is having or caring for a baby.]. If they do get maternity leave, women are often worried that, if they do not return to work quickly, they will lose their job and it is often very difficult for them to find another. Paternity leave – time off for the father – is rare, although it is becoming common in other European countries.
A big problem for working mothers in the UK is the low standard of child-care facilities for pre-school children. Parents may employ a nanny [child nurse trained to a high standard] to come to their home or to live with them. This is very expensive and only realistic for a small percentage of families. An alternative is child-care centres run by the local council, where a child-minder [a person who is qualified to look after children] looks after children during the day. It is not always easy to get a place in one of these centres.
Once the child has reached school age, most women in Britain work part-time, to fit in with school hours. However, this is not always possible for women who want a career.
Which of the following (paid work, voluntary work, unpaid labour, part-time work) is most usual for men/women in Britain? What about in Russia?
Are men and women entitled to maternity leave or paternity leave in Britain? What are the arguments for the latter? Children start school at 4 or 5 in Britain. What child-care facilities exist for pre-school children in Russia? What are the Equal Pay Act and the Sex Discrimination Act? Do similar acts exist in Russia?
In the past, families tended to stay together. They felt it was their duty to do this and that marriage was for life. Divorce was not socially acceptable. It was a commonly held view that a bad marriage was better than no marriage at all.
In Britain, as in many industrialized societies, there has been a steady rise in the numbers of divorce. The Second World War disrupted a lot of marriages, due to enforced separation and hasty marriages which were later regretted. Immediately after the war there were a record number of divorces and the proportion of marriages involving a divorced partner grew from 2% in 1940 to 32% in 1985.
The most dramatic change resulted from the 1971 divorce law. The law stated that there needed to be only one reason for a divorce petition [an application for legal action to be taken] – the “irretrievable breakdown of marriage.” This was a much wider category than the previous ones of cruelty, insanity, desertion or adultery.
The change in the law had an immediate effect. In 1972 there were over 119,000 divorces in England and Wales and the rate has continued to rise. The total number in 1990 was over 153,000, around 2% higher than in 1989. Proposed laws may make divorce even easier.
Couples can now afford the legal side of getting and surviving a divorce more easily than at any time in the past. However, for many families it is still an economic disaster as well as being emotionally difficult.
Another possible reason behind the rise in the divorce rate is the changing attitude to marriage itself. The traditional Christian approach to marriage has been against divorce. As the Church becomes less influential in the UK, the view of marriage as a union for life has weakened. The result is that the break-up of a marriage is seen as less of a moral crisis and more as a matter of personal happiness.
Perhaps the people most affected by a divorce are the children. According to current forecasts, about 20% of children in Britain will experience family breakdown by the age of 16. There has been growing concern for such children, who are usually between the ages of five and ten. Recent laws have indicated that first consideration should be given to the welfare of the children when making financial arrangements after a divorce.
If a marriage is going through a troubled time, the partners may ask for help from the voluntary counsellors of an organization which is called Relate (formerly the Marriage Guidance Council).
List two possible reasons for the divorce rate rising sharply since the Second World War.
Since the Second World War, there has been an increased acceptance of sex before marriage in Britain. Successive post-war generations are more likely to have had sex before marriage and are more likely to have sex with partners other than the one they eventually marry.
It is now acceptable in most social circles for people to live together before they are married – if they intend to get married at all. The numbers of couples cohabiting increased during the 1980s, becoming common as a living arrangement before marriage. Many people think that this is a useful way of “testing out” a relationship before the commitment of marriage. In 1979 only 8% of single women between the ages of 18 and 49 were cohabiting; in 1988 this figure had gone up to 20%. There is no word in English to describe the relationship of a cohabiting couple. People sometimes describe themselves as “partners” or say that they have a live-in boyfriend or girlfriend.
As the number of couples living together has increased, so the marriage rate has decreased. Since the early 1970s, the number of people getting married has fallen steeply, and the proportion of women who are married fell for all age groups in the 1980s. In 1980, 64% of all women aged 15 – 44 were married. Nine years later this figure had fallen to 55%. Of the women who did get married in 1987, more than half had lived with their husbands before marriage.
On average, those who do choose to get married tend to marry later: the ages at which men and women marry for the first time have risen continuously in recent years. In 1990, it was 27 for men and 25 for women.
In 1990, 28% of children born in England and Wales were born outside marriage. In 1980, the figure was 11.8%. One of the reasons for this change is that couples no longer feel compelled to get married if they have a child. By the end of the 1980s, the majority of births outside marriage were to cohabiting couples, not to single people.
Society used to be very cruel towards the teenage mother. Now families are more sympathetic, and hasty marriages because of an unplanned pregnancy are less common. There has also been a dramatic fall in the number of babies available for adoption, indicating that more babies are kept by the parent. The young mother is more likely to keep her child than 20 years ago, but the single parent still faces great economic problems.
One in seven families in Britain are single-parent families. There are several different types of one-parent family. Parents can be on their own because of the death of a partner, divorce, the break-down of live-in relationships, or births outside marriage to single people.
Fathers face particular problems as single parents. British society does not expect men to have their working life disrupted by the need to care for a sick child, for example. Men may have to fight for the right to look after their children – the mother is often presumed to have more rights to them.
In the majority of one-parent families it is the mother who is the single parent. Women are clearly at a disadvantage in a society where the state assumes a man will be the main breadwinner, and there are few opportunities for lone mothers to earn a good income while continuing to look after their children. A lone parent with a well-paid job may be able to pay for a nanny, but this is rare. Around 70% of lone parents rely on state benefits as their main source of income. Although single-parent families are now accepted by society, the majority view is that two parents are almost essential for the stable upbringing of a child, as children need role models of both sexes.
In this item the writer mentions:
socially acceptable alternative life-styles
socially acceptable alternative relationships
socially acceptable ways of bringing up children.
What might these alternatives to the nuclear family be? How socially acceptable are they in Russia? What is the major problem facing one-parent families?
Immigration has brought a number of family forms to Britain that are different from the traditional British pattern.
Asian families tend to put a much greater emphasis on blood relationships. Family members feel that they have strong loyalties and obligations both to their family in Britain and also to the rest of the family who may still be in their country of origin. Many Indian families, for example, continue to provide financial support for relatives in India.
Immigrant families, such as South Asian families, may be patriarchal: the man is the head of the household. He controls the family finances and negotiates major family decisions. This male-dominated family life has meant that, in the early years of immigration, many women were cut off from the rest of society, because of social and language barriers.
West Indian families present another distinct family pattern. Studies in the early 1980s showed that there are two basic patterns to many West Indian families in Britain. One consists of a household where a man and a woman live together with their children, with or without a formal marriage. Secondly, there is the female-dominated household where women care for the children and provide an income on their own.
It is generally thought that before the 1960s and the start of what is sometimes called the “permissive society” [term given to a society which gives people a great deal of freedom, especially sexual freedom], parents were much stricter with children. Nowadays many people have a different attitude to parenting. One view is that children should be talked to and listened to, and they should be more involved in family decisions. In families like this, parents explain house rules instead of imposing them on the child. Hitting children is now frowned upon [disapproved of] in most families.
Family sizes fell in the 1970s and 1980s. This is partly because people have fewer children: in Britain most people have just two. But the main factor is the increase in the number of one-person households. A high proportion of men and women living alone have never married – there is no longer great pressure on people to do so. In the past a woman, especially, would not leave the family home until she was getting married and starting her own family. Now many children leave home at around 18. It is not unusual for young people to live alone or with friends.
There is also an increasing number of old people living alone. Critics say too many old people are neglected by their families. The homes of the nuclear family are often not big enough to take in any extra members. Old people may not want to move if their children now live in another town.
Why has the average size of a household in Britain dropped? How does family life in Britain differ from Russia? Have the general attitudes to family life changed in Russia? If they have, do you think these changes are good?
“Bill’s wife always laughs at his jokes.”
“They must be very clever?”
“No, she is.”
“My wife has the worst memory I’ve ever heard of.”
“Forgets everything, eh?”
“No, remembers everything.”
“I don’t know what to do with my son, he is so unreliable,” a father told his friend.
“Get him a job in the meteorological department,” suggested the friend.
ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ И НАЦИОНАЛЬНОСТЬ
What country are you from?/What country do you come from?/Where are you from? Откуда вы родом?
Where is your birthplace?/Where were you born? Где Вы родились?
I was born in N. Я родился в N.
He is from (comes from) France. Он родом из Франции.
What is your nationality? Какой вы национальности?
He is my countryman. She is my countrywoman. Он мой соотечественник./Она моя соотечественница.
Are you Swedish? No, I am not Swedish. I come from Bulgaria, I am a Bulgarian. Вы швед? Нет, я не швед. Я родом из Болгарии, я болгарин (по происхождению).
What is your native language? My native language is Russian. I speak Russian. Какой ваш родной язык? Мой родной язык русский. Я говорю по-русски.
What does he look like? Как он выглядит?
He is a handsome man. Он красивый мужчина.
She is lovely (lovely-looking). Она восхитительна.
She is beautiful. Она красивая.
She was decidedly pretty. Она была безусловно красива.
She is an attractive (a fetching) girl. Она привлекательная девушка.
She is a nice-looking (comely) girl. Она миловидная девушка.
She had a fascinating smile. У нее была очаровательная улыбка.
She was of fair complexion. У нее был светлый цвет лица.
You bear your age well. Вы выглядите моложе своих лет.
Time stands still with you. Вы не стареете.
What’s the matter with you? You don’t look yourself. Что с Вами? Вы не похожи на себя.
She had a likeness to N. Она была похожа на N.
She is like her mother. Она похожа на свою мать.
The child took after its mother in appearance and character. Ребенок похож на свою мать внешностью и характером.
He is six feet five inches tall./He is six feet five. Его рост 5 футов 5 дюймов.
Her eyes are large, brilliant and black. У нее большие блестящие черные глаза.
clean-shaven гладко выбритое
FEATURES ЧЕРТЫ ЛИЦА
clean-cut/delicate резко очерченные/тонкие
sweet/broad/faint милая/широкая/едва заметная
COMPLEXION ЦВЕТ ЛИЦА
dimples in one’s cheeks ямочки на щеках
lean (mostly about men) худощавая (о мужчинах)
slim (about a woman) тонкая/стройная (о женщинах)
to raise one’s eyebrows поднимать брови
bobbed/bald коротко остриженные/лысый
forelock прядь волос на лбу, хохол, чуб
a brunette/a blond(e) брюнетка/блондинка
a set of teeth ряд зубов
pointed/round /massive острый/круглый/массивный
kind (good)/warm добрые/от которых веет теплом
close-set/sunken близко поставленные/запавшие
I. Look at your neighbour and answer the following questions.
What colour are his (her) eyes? Is his (her) hair long or short? What colour are his (her) eyebrows? Are they thick or pencilled? Is his (her) forehead large? What can you say about his (her) mouth?
II. Read the text and discuss it with your fellow-students.
When we speak about somebody’s figure, face, hands, feet we mean his or her appearance. When we speak about somebody’s appearance we describe it. Today we’ll describe the appearance of one boy and two girls. The boy’s name is Pete. This girl is Ann and that girl is Kitty. Pete and Ann are twelve. Kitty is only four. Let us look at Pete first. He is not short. He is tall. He is taller than Ann. Ann is not so tall as Pete though she is twelve too. She is not tall enough for her age. She is not very tall and not very short. She is middle-sized. Little Kitty is short.
A person may be tall, middle-sized or short, thin or plump. “Plump” means “fat in a pleasant-looking way”. A face may be round, oval or square. In summer some people may have freckles on their faces. Old people have wrinkled faces. Look at the children again. Pete and Ann are thin. Kitty is plump. Her face is round. Ann has an oval face. In summer all the three children have freckles on their faces.
III. Answer the following questions.
Who is the shortest of all the children? Who is taller: Pete or Ann? Is Ann middle-sized or tall? What does it mean when we say “She is middle-sized”? Are you tall enough for your age? Who is the tallest (shortest) boy (girl) in your group? Are you thin or plump? Is it better to be plump or thin? Who has freckles? When do people have freckles on their faces? Is your face wrinkled? What people have wrinkled faces?
IV. Say it in English.
Высокий мальчик (среднего роста, низкий, толстый, худой, большой, маленький, хороший, плохой).
Круглое лицо (овальное, квадратное, приятное, неприятное, покрытое веснушками, морщинистое).
V. Say a few words about your friend’s appearance.
VI. Describe a picture of а person.
VII. Read the text and make it into a dialogue.
People’s hair may be long or short, thin or thick, good or bad, straight or curly. If it is long it is often plaited. Its colour may be black or fair, brown or red. Old people have grey hair.
Eyes may be large or small. They may be of different colour: grey, green, blue, black or hazel.
Cheeks may be rosy or pale (if a person is ill), plump or hollow (if a person is very thin). Some people have dimples in their cheeks when they laugh.
straight ровный, прямой
plaited заплетенные в косу
hazel карий, светло-коричневый
VIII. Answer the following questions.
What can you tell about the figures of different people? What do you know about people’s hair? Is your sister’s/brother’s hair straight or curly? When do people have freckles (wrinkles) on their faces? Are your friend’s eyes hazel? Who has dimples in the cheeks?
IX. Read the description of Kate’s appearance.
This girl’s name is Kate. She is a tall girl. Her hair is fair. It is rather long, thick and plaited. Her face is oval. She has big blue eyes and thick long eyelashes. Her eyebrows are dark and pencilled, her nose is straight, her lips are rather thin. She is smiling now and we can see her white teeth and a dimple in her left cheek.
X. Describe Kate’s appearance.
XI. Translate the following sentences into English.
Петя – маленький мальчик. Ему четыре года. Он маленького роста и толстенький. Он похож на своего отца. Лицо у Пети круглое и в веснушках. У него густые кудрявые каштановые волосы и маленький нос. Мне нравятся его большие серые глаза и белые зубы. У него полные губы и пухлые розовые щеки. Я думаю, что он умный мальчик, так как у него широкий и высокий лоб.
XII. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Ann’s hair is not long but thick and curly. 2. Jane has a blue ribbon in her chestnut hair. 3. John has a very great forehead and dark hazel eyes. His cheeks are plump but very pale. His eyebrows are dark, but his hair is grey. 4. Nina looks older than she is, but when she smiles or laughs, two pretty dimples appear in her cheeks and she becomes younger. 5. Pete wears his hair parted in the middle. 6. The girl had rather small features (nose, mouth), a snub (turned up) nose and a fair complexion (the colour of her face was not dark).
Words and Phrases
to wear one’s hair parted in the middle носить волосы на прямой пробор
snub (turned up) nose курносый нос
fair complexion светлый цвет лица
ant. dark complexion
XIII. Read the text and then describe the appearance of any of your friends.
Jane is a schoolgirl. She is ten but looks older than she is. She has rather small features, a snub nose and a fair complexion. She wears her short hair parted in the middle, and has a red ribbon in her long brown hair. Her eyes are blue. She has a very pleasant smile.
When she smiles, two very pretty dimples appear in her rosy cheeks.
XIV. Answer the following questions.
What do we touch with? What do we do with our eyes? What is the colour of your eyes? What colour of eyes do you like best? Can we see when our eyes are closed? When can we see? Do we smell with our noses or ears? What do we hear with? What do we taste with?
XV. Explain in English what this proverb means. Memorize it.
Two heads are better than one. Ум хорошо, а два лучше.
XVI. Read the text. Make up five questions to its content.
Today we’ll learn some more words about appearance. When we speak about one’s hair we must know that if a person has very little hair or no hair at all, we say that he is bald. A nose may be long or short, straight or crooked, aquiline or snub (turned up). A chin may be large or small, round or protruding. Speaking about one’s teeth we say that they are large, small or tiny, even or uneven.
XVII. Read the sentences and then describe the appearance of any person, using the underlined words or their antonyms.
Mike is unlike (like) his mother. His forehead is narrow (broad) and low (high), his teeth are large (small) and even (uneven). He has an aquiline (straight) nose and a protruding (round) chin.
Betsy is rather short (tall) and plump (thin). Her hair is black (fair) and straight (curly). Her eyebrows are bushy (pencilled), her eyelashes are thin (thick) but long (short). She has small (large) hazel eyes and a crooked (turned up) nose. Her cheeks are never rosy (pale). Her lips are thin (full) and red. Her face is very unpleasant (pleasant) when she smiles.
XVIII. Say it in English.
Большие глаза (маленькие, серые, голубые, карие, зеленые, умные).
Длинный нос (короткий, прямой, вздернутый).
Маленькая голова (большая, круглая).
Круглое лицо (квадратное, овальное, веснушчатое, хорошее, приятное).
Лицо мальчика (девочки, мужчины, женщины).
XIX. Fill in the blanks with proper words and read the sentences.
1. Some middle-aged and old people have no hair on their heads. They are … . 2. I can’t call him good-looking: his nose is … and his chin is ... . 3. She has rather small features, but her teeth are not ... . They are large. 4. When she smiles, a pretty … appears in her left cheek. 5. He has a ... complexion but very dark hair. 6. I don’t like the way he wears his hair parted ... .
XX. Read the text and describe the appearance of any old man.
Here is an old man. His face is square. His forehead and cheeks are wrinkled. He has clever hazel eyes, overhung by bushy eyebrows. His eyes are rather small and deep-set. His nose is long and crooked. His lips aren’t thin. They are full. We can’t see his chin as it is covered with a long beard, but I think it must be protruding. His beard and moustache are dark while his hair is grey. He has so little hair that we can say that he is bald. He has a white shirt and a black jacket on.
XXI. Play the game “Guess the Person”.
XXII. Learn the idioms. What do they mean?
To carry fire in one hand and water in the other. Говорить одно, а думать другое.
To work with the left hand. Работать спустя рукава.
To be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth. Родиться в сорочке.
XXIII. Translate the sentences.
1. The fat boy pointed at the dog with his thick finger. 2. Her brother was short, broad-shouldered and strong. 3. Her shoulders, neck and arms were rounded and beautiful. 4. This girl has wavy (curly) hair cut short. 5. He is a fat (plump) man with a funny head. 6. Mike’s father has a dark complexion. 7. An old man with clever grey eyes overhung by bushy eyebrows was standing near our house. 8. His dark eyes were small and deep-set. His cheeks were pale and touched with freckles.
XXIV. Answer the following questions.
Has your friend a mole on her (his) face? Is it big or small? Do you sometimes ask your friend to do you a favour? What favour do you ask her (him) to do?
Words and Phrases
to do a favour сделать одолжение
XXV. Read the dialogue and describe Betsy’s appearance. Dramatize the dialogue.
Kitty: I’ve come to ask you to help me. Will you help me, dear?
Nelly: With pleasure.
Kitty: You see, my cousin Betsy is coming today with the 2.30 train, but I can’t meet her at the station as I have a meeting after my lessons. Will you do me a favour and meet her?
Nelly: But I’ve never seen her, how could I recognize her?
Kitty: It’s quite easy. She is just like her mother.
Nelly: But I’ve never seen her mother.
Kitty: What a pity! What shall I do then?
Nelly: Try to describe her. What does she look like?
Kitty: She is twelve, but I think she looks older as she is rather tall for her age.
Kitty: Fair and plaited. She has a high forehead, large grey eyes, dark pencilled eyebrows and a straight nose. Her teeth are large and even. Nelly: I’m afraid it is not much. There'll be at least a dozen girls like that at the station.
Kitty: I’ve forgotten to tell you that Betsy has a big mole on her left cheek and that her face is freckled.
Nelly: That’ll help me for sure. Go to your meeting and I’ll meet your cousin.
XXVI. Dramatize the following situations.
a) What will you say and how will you act if your friend asks you to meet somebody?
b) Ask to meet a friend of yours at the station. Explain why you aren’t able to do it yourself.
Bobby: Ma, what do we call people who have no hair on their heads?
Mother: We call them bald.
Bobby: Look at that man. He is absolutely bald. He has no hair on his head.
Mother: Hush, dear, he may hear you.
Bobby: And doesn’t he know it?
Once a boy who thought himself a grown-up man came to the barber’s shop and asked the barber to shave him. The barber asked him to sit down and soaped his face. Then he left the boy alone. He stood at the door speaking and laughing with another barber. The boy got tired of waiting and shouted, “Well, what are you leaving me all this time for?” The barber replied, “I’m waiting until your beard grows.”
GENERAL NOTIONS ОБЩИЕ ПОНЯТИЯ
building здание, сооружение, дом
erect a building построить дом
pull down a building снести здание
public building общественное здание
house дом, жилище, здание
home жилище, дом, домашний очаг
at home дома (у себя)
go home идти домой
feel at home чувствовать себя как дома
place жилище: Come over to my place tomorrow.
residence местожительство, жилой дом
permanent residence постоянное место жительства
temporary residence временное место жительства
residential area район жилых зданий в городе
property собственность частная, мэрии, объект собственности, недвижимость
buy a property купить недвижимость
registration регистрация по месту жительства
storey (floor) этаж
two-storeyed building двухэтажное здание
live on the ground floor жить на первом этаже
top floor последний этаж
move into въезжать
move out выезжать
housewarming party новоселье
inhabitant жилец, обитатель
owner собственник, владелец
host (hostess) хозяин (хозяйка), принимающий гостей
decorate отделывать (квартиру)
furnish обставлять (мебелью)
well furnished хорошо обставленная
arrange furniture расставлять мебель
let сдавать в наем: Have you got a room to let?
TYPES OF DWELLING ВИДЫ ЖИЛЫХ ПОМЕЩЕНИЙ
country house поместье, загородный дом, дача (большая)
cottage коттедж, крестьянский дом
housing estate дачный поселок
weekend house дачный домик
block of flats многоквартирный дом
multi-storey block of flats многоэтажный многоквартирный дом
studio студия (квартира, не разделенная на отдельные помещения)
HOUSE PARTS ЧАСТИ ЗДАНИЯ
roofless без крыши
basement цоколь, фундамент
parapet ограждение балкона
front door парадная дверь
back door черный ход
door lock дверной замок
door handle дверная ручка
front steps входные ступеньки
staircase лестничная клетка
flight of stairs лестничный марш
staircase landing лестничная площадка
stair light освещение лестницы
patio маленький внутренний садик, площадка рядом с домом, используемая для чаепитий и т.д.
guest room комната для гостей
workout room комната для спортивных тренировок
recreation room комната отдыха
PREMISES AND OUTHOUSE BUILDINS ПРИЛЕГАЮЩАЯ К ДОМУ ТЕРРИТОРИЯ И НАДВОРНЫЕ ПОСТРОЙКИ
at the front of the house перед домом
at the back (rear) of the house позади дома, на заднем дворе
front garden сад (цветник) перед домом
plot участок земли
orchard фруктовый сад
kitchen garden огород
gardener садовник, садовод
wooden fence деревянный забор
fenced обнесенный забором
hedge живая изгородь
flagstone path тропинка, вымощенная камнями
green-house оранжерея, парник
two-car garage гараж для двух машин
tool shed сарай для хозяйственного инвентаря
litter bin урна для мусора
back yard задний двор
kennel собачья будка
BUILDING AND REPAIRING A HOUSE СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО И РЕМОНТ ДОМА
construction (building) site строительная площадка
all metal цельнометаллический
paint краска; красить, производить малярные работы
paper оклеивать обоями
HOUSE FITTING AND ACCOMODATION КВАРТИРНОЕ ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ И УДОБСТВА
modern conveniences современные удобства
have (take) a bath принимать ванну
run a bath for oneself приготовить себе ванну
bell (doorbell) дверной звонок
ring the bell позвонить в дверь
press the bell нажать кнопку звонка
bell is heard звонят в дверь
answer the doorbell открыть дверь на звонок
switch on (off) the light включить (выключить) свет
hanging lamp висячая лампа
reading (table, desk) lamp настольная лампа
standing lamp торшер
wall lamp бра
central heating центральное отопление
radiator радиатор, батарея центрального отопления
rubbish chute мусоропровод
have running water иметь водопроводную воду
dryer машина для высушивания
HOUSEKEEPING ВЕДЕНИЕ ДОМАШНЕГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА
keep house вести домашнее хозяйство
tidy up (do) убирать, наводить порядок
sweep the floor with a brush подметать пол щеткой
wipe вытирать (мокрой тряпкой), мыть
polish натирать до блеска
dust smth стирать пыль с чего-либо
air smth проветрить что-либо
empty garbage pail вытряхнуть мусорное ведро
HOUSEHOLD APPLIENCES AND UTENSILS БЫТОВЫЕ ПРИБОРЫ И ПРЕДМЕТЫ ДОМАШНЕГО ОБИХОДА
ironing table гладильная доска
iron well подставка для утюга
automatic washing machine автоматическая стиральная машина
airer сушилка для белья
clothes (washing) line бельевая веревка
linen bin бак для белья
floor cloth половая тряпка
vacuum cleaner пылесос
microwave oven микроволновая печь
ROOMS ANS INTERIORS КОМНАТЫ И ИНТЕРЬЕР
coat rack вешалка для пальто
hall mirror зеркало
chest of drawers for shoes, etc. комод для обуви и т.п.
Living-room Жилая комната, гостиная
wall units секционная стенка
bookshelf полка для книг
television set/TV set телевизор
stereo system стереосистема
speaker/loudspeaker громкоговоритель (колонка)
seating group мягкая мебель (гарнитур)
curtain занавес, занавеска; занавешивать
(round) corner section (круглая) угловая секция
wardrobe платяной шкаф
double bed двуспальная кровать
bedside cabinet прикроватная тумбочка
bedroom lamp ночник, ночная лампа
dressing table туалетный столик
dining set столовый гарнитур
dining table обеденный стол
dining chair стул
tea-cloth посудное полотенце
wall (kitchen) cupboard навесной кухонный шкаф
electric can opener электрический консервный нож
disposal прибор для переработки отходов
appliance прибор, оборудование
Bathroom Ванная и туалет
bath tub ванна
Proverbs and Sayings
An Englishman’s home (house) is his castle. Дом англичанина – его крепость.
Burn not your house to rid it of the mouse. Не сжигай своего дома, чтобы избавиться от мыши.
East or West, home is best. Восток ли, запад ли, а дома лучше.
There is no place like home. В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше.
People who live in glass houses should never throw stones. Не руби сук, на котором сидишь.
build one’s house upon a rock «строить свой дом на скале», создавать что-либо на прочном фундаменте
build one’s house upon the sand «строить дом на песке», создавать, основывать что-либо, не имея прочного фундамента
keep open house держать двери дома открытыми (для гостей); жить на широкую ногу; отличаться, славится гостеприимством
turn smb out of house and home выгнать, выставить кого-либо из дома
homeland родная земля, родина
be homesick скучать по родине
I. Match each part of the house with what you usually do in it.
1) … the bedroom a) a place to cook
2) … the living-room b) a place to keep a car
3) … the garage c) a place to eat
4) … the bathroom d) a place to wash
5) … the kitchen e) a place to relax, watch TV and talk
6) … the dining-room f) a place to sleep
II. Read the text and ask your deskmate questions on the text.
We live in town. We have a flat in a new block of flats in the centre of the town. There are many flats in the block, a lot of people live in it. Our flat is number ten. It is not on the ground floor, it is on the second floor.
Our flat has four rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom. There is a small hall. There we take off our coats and hats and hang them on the hallstand. The kitchen and the bathroom are on one side of the corridor, the living-room, two bedrooms and the children’s room are on the other side.
The living-room is large, the other three rooms are not very big. The living-room has a balcony. The other rooms have no balcony. The rooms are not very high, but they are light, the windows are large.
Our flat has got gas and hot and cold running water. There is no lift in our block of flats.
At the back of the block of flats there is a yard with trees in it. There are benches under the trees and a playground for children.
III. Answer the questions.
1. Do you live in a flat or in a house? 2. What is your address? 3. What rooms have you got? 4. Have you got a balcony? 5. Is your living-room light? 6. You have got a lift, haven’t you? 7. What is there in your living-room? 8. What is there in your bedroom? 9. Have you got gas and hot and cold water in your flat? 10. What is your kitchen like?
IV. Describe your flat (house).
V. Read the text and describe the house.
MY FRIEND’S HOUSE
My friend Kolya is a village boy. He lives in the village of Pronino, not far from the town of Voronezh.
Kolya and his family live in a house in the centre of the village. Their house is new. It is not small, it has two floors. The house has got water and gas.
There are two rooms, a hall and a kitchen on the ground floor. On the first floor there are three bedrooms and a bathroom. The rooms are large and light. One of the rooms on the first floor is the children’s room. Kolya lives there with his little brother.
In the yard there is a shed. There is a cow, a pig, some hens and ducks there.
At the back of the house there is a kitchen-garden and a garden with apple-trees in it. There is a well too. There are a lot of flowers in front of the house.
Kolya’s parents are farmers. They work very hard.
Kolya is a schoolboy, he is in the eighth form. Kolya helps his parents about the house and waters the flowers and the trees. He loves his little brother and likes to look after him. In summer he helps farmers in the field.
VI. Read the dialogue and tell about Dmitry’s house.
MEETING A FRIEND
Dmitry has a new house. One day he meets Vera in the centre of the town.
Vera: Good afternoon, Dmitry! I don’t see you in town now. Where are you all the time?
Dmitry: Well, Vera, we don’t live in town now.
V.: You don’t live in town? Where do you live then?
D.: We have a house near the town.
V.: Is it a nice one?
D.: Very nice! We all like it very much.
V.: Is it large?
D.: It’s neither very large nor very small. It has a living-room, a dining-room, a bedroom, a children’s room, and, of course, a kitchen and a bathroom. We have got gas and hot and cold water.
V.: Have you got a garden?
D.: Yes, two. A flower-garden in front and a kitchen-garden with trees in it at the back of the house.
V.: I must come and see it some day.
D.: Yes, my wife and I are always very glad to see you.
V.: What is your address?
D.: It is 27, Lesnaya Street. Take bus number 25 and it’s the third stop after the factory. Our street is the second on the left after the stop.
V.: Thank you. Good-bye!
D.: Good-bye, Vera!
VII. Read the text and put the verbs in the correct form.
MR WHITE’S HOUSE
Mr John White (to live) at 16, Forest Road, Greentown, England.
His house (to be) not very large, but it (to be) not small either. It (to have) two floors.
The hall, the living-room, the dining-room and the kitchen (to be) on the ground floor. On the first floor there (to be) bedrooms and a bathroom.
In front of the house there (to be) a small garden with flowers in it. At the back of the Whites’ house there (to be) a kitchen-garden with trees in it, the children play there in fine weather. The garden at the back of the house (to be) large, the one at the front (to be) small.
VIII. Read the text. Make up three questions for your groupmates to answer them.
The proverb runs, “There is no place like home”. I quite agree with it because home is the only place on earth where you can feel completely comfortable and relaxed, where you can find support and understanding of your family. Much depends on how your home looks like and whether there is a small spot of your own inside this small world.
My family lives in a nine-storeyed block of flats in the very centre of our city. Our three-room flat is on the seventh floor. So we live rather high.
There is, of course, a lift in our house to carry us up and down. We have all modern conveniences in the house: electricity, hot and cold running water, central heating, a telephone and a chute to carry rubbish down.
Now I’d like to show you round our flat. As you come in, you find yourself in rather a spacious hall. Our flat is modern and well-planned and that is why all the rooms in it are quite big. In the hall, just in front of the entrance door, there is an oval mirror with a small shelf under it. On the shelf we keep brushes and combs.
To the right of the door there is a stand for hats and coats.
The first door on your left leads to the kitchen. It’s a modern kitchen, nice and clean, with a lot of cupboards where we keep our kitchen utensils. There is also a fridge, an electric cooker and a washing machine. As we have meals in the kitchen, there is a square table in front of the window with a few chairs around it. The walls of the kitchen are tiled. On the window there are lovely pink curtains and three flower pots.
Next to the kitchen there is a sitting-room. It is large and comfortable. The walls are papered. As the wall-paper is very light, our sitting-room is never dark, even on a dull and rainy day. In the centre of the room you can see a big window with light brown curtains on it. Near one wall there’s a suite of furniture with a bookcase full of books, a cupboard and a wardrobe in it. In the corner to the right of the window there is a television and a stereo. Opposite the suite there is a sofa with a standard lamp to the left of it. Next to the lamp there is a small table with a telephone on it. On the wall above the sofa there are a few lovely pictures. The floor is covered with a beautiful thick carpet. An electric light hangs from the middle of the ceiling. At night when it gets dark we draw the curtains, switch on the light and gather together in the sitting-room to talk over the news of the day.
The next room is mine. It is the smallest one, but I love it very much. It was up to me to decide how to furnish it. So everything is to my taste there. You know I am keen on modern music and films and the walls of my room are papered with pictures of pop singers and actors. There is not much furniture in it. There is a desk with a few bookshelves and a lamp over it near the window. Next to the desk there’s a small table with a cassette-recorder and lots of cassettes. In the corner you can see a corner sofa. To the left of it there’s a piano which I play sometimes.
As for my parents’ bedroom it is furnished very simply. There are two beds with bedside tables, a dressing table with a mirror and a wardrobe. In this room there is a balcony where we grow flowers in summer.
The windows of our flat look out on the yard. There you can see a lovely lawn planted with flowers in summer and autumn, some benches and a spacious play-ground for children.
I am very fond of the place I live in. I know I will always think of it even if I am far away from it.
IX. Read the dialogue.
A VISIT TO AN AMERICAN HOUSE
Mr Garrett: Let me show you your room, Sasha. You’ll sleep in the guestroom on the ground floor. Here is your room and your bathroom with a shower. Next to your room is a sitting-room with a television. And here is my study where I work on my computer.
Sasha: Do you have any computer games?
G.: Yes, I do. We also have educational computer programs. This next room is our workout room. Next to it is our recreation room, where you can play ping-pong or table hockey. I hope you’ll be comfortable here.
S.: Thank you.
G.: Let’s go upstairs and I’ll show you the rest of the house. This is Alison’s room. Alison is almost 11 years old.
S.: What grade is she in?
G.: She’s in the fifth grade. We have another daughter, Natalie. She’s 17 years old and attends Roswell High School. This is her room and this is the girls’ bathroom.
S.: Is Natalie at home?
G.: No. She’s at work. She works at the shopping mall. She’s saving money for college. She will attend college next year.
S.: What is a shopping mall?
G.: A shopping mall is a big building with a lot of different stores and restaurants.
S.: All in one building?
G.: That’s right.
S.: Does Natalie take the bus to her work?
G.: No, she’s just got her driver’s license and drives herself to work. And here is our bedroom and bathroom. Let’s walk down the hall to the kitchen.
S.: You have so many appliances in your kitchen.
G.: Yes, they make life a lot easier. For example, this is our microwave oven. It’s similar to a regular oven, but it’s much smaller and it heats up food much quicker. And this is our dishwasher.
S.: And what is this little machine?
G.: This is an electric can opener. It opens cans of soup and tuna fish automatically. And if you look in the sink, you’ll see our disposal.
S.: What is a disposal?
G.: We put our vegetable peels in the sink, push a button and the disposal automatically minces them and they disappear!
S.: How convenient!
G.: Yes. And next to the kitchen is the laundry room. This is where we wash and dry our clothes.
S.: Where do you hang the clothes?
G.: We don’t. The washing machine washes the clothes and the dryer dries them. The next room is our living-room and here is our dining-room.
S.: You have a wonderful house.
G.: Thank you, Sasha. There is no place like home.
X. Answer the questions.
1. How many rooms are there in the Garretts’ house? 2. What rooms are there on the ground floor? 3. What room will Sasha be sleeping in? 4. What do they use their recreation room for? 5. Do different appliances at home make our life easier and more convenient? 6. Why do the Garretts like to use a microwave oven? 7. What do they use a dishwasher for? 8. How does an electric can opener work? 9. Why is it convenient to use a disposal? 10. It’s easy for the Garretts to wash their clothes, isn’t it? 11. Does Sasha like the Garretts’ house? 12. Where do you live? 13. How many floors are there in your house? 14. How many people are there in your family? 15. Do you have any of the appliances that the Garretts have? 16. Do you think that some appliances save people their time?
XI. Read the text. Think of your favourite room. Say why you like it.
MY FAVOURITE ROOM
My favourite room is our kitchen. Perhaps the kitchen is the most important room in many houses, but it is particularly so in our house because it’s not only where we cook and eat but it’s also the main meeting place for family and friends.
What does this special room look like? It’s quite big, but not huge. It’s big enough to have a good-sized table in the centre. There is a large window above the sink. The cooker is at the wall.
The front door is seldom used in our house, only by strangers. All our friends use the back door, which means they come straight into the kitchen and join in whatever is happening there. The kettle goes on immediately and then we all sit round the table, drinking tea and talking.
Without doubt some of the happiest moments of my life have been spent in our kitchen.
XII. Draw a plan of your favourite room and let your deskmate describe it.
XIII. Read the dialogue.
WE ARE BUILDING A HOUSE OF OUR OWN
Wales – an architect
Bob – a client
Sandra – his wife
Wales: Now, I’ve made sure that the main services – water and electricity are available in Manchester. So there is nothing to worry about. I’d like to discuss with you the interior design. Shall we start with the downstairs or the upstairs?
Sandra: Downstairs, please.
Wales: Here is a rough plan of the ground floor. The hall and the kitchen are on the side facing the road. The living-room and dining-room are in the south, with side windows looking on the garden. They’ll get all the sunshine, of course.
Bob: We agreed to combine the living-room and the dining-room, didn’t we?
W.: Yes. You’ll see I’ve not put a wall between the two rooms. The division can be made by built-in bookshelves on the living-room side and cupboards and more shelves on the dining-room side.
S.: An excellent idea! I like built-in furniture. It saves space, and is cheaper. We won’t have to buy separate pieces of furniture.
W.: You’re right, Sandra. Now I’ll go ahead. Here is the hall and the stairs. There is a door from the hall into the living-room here, and another door on the right into the kitchen. On the left side of the hall there is a cloakroom with a washbasin in it, and next to it – a lavatory.
B.: That all seems very convenient. As for the kitchen I’m afraid there won’t be enough light. What can we do about it?
W.: The door on the west side can be half glass, if you like. This door is for the tradesmen. If you look at the sketch, you’ll see here’s a path from the gate to the front door. Here is the garage, on the west side of the house. There is also a wide path from the front road straight to the garage. There is also a door in the kitchen, which leads to a cellar.
S.: Isn’t it wonderful, darling? Now let’s have a look at the upstairs rooms.
W.: O.K. The two large bedrooms are in the south. The small bedroom’s in the north. Each of them has a large closet so there is no need for separate wardrobes. Here is the bathroom, and the W.C. next to it.
B.: We were discussing lighting last time we saw you, Wales. Will that be all right?
W.: You say you don’t want standard lamps or table lamps, so I’ve arranged for indirect lighting in the living-room. The cables will be built into the wall.
B.: Oh, there is one thing I forgot to ask about the kitchen. Most of the kitchen furniture will be built-in, won’t it?
W.: Yes, the sink will be under the window. The electric cooker will be in the corner, so there’ll be plenty of space for a refrigerator, a washing machine and a dishwasher.
S.: The kitchen is going to be just marvelous!
W.: Is there anything you’d like to ask me about?
S.: I don’t think so. Thank you so much.
B.: Thanks a lot.
XIV. Answer the questions on the dialogue.
1. What rooms did Wales plan downstairs? 2. What rooms did Sandra and Bob want to combine? 3. What rooms is the living-room connected with? 4. What didn’t Bob like about the kitchen? 5. Is there a cellar and a garage in the house? 6. What is planned upstairs? 7. How many bedrooms will there be? 8. Will there be any wardrobes? Why? 9. How will the kitchen be furnished?
GENERAL NOTIONS ОБЩИЕ ПОНЯТИЯ
dwelling жилище, дом
dwelling house жилой дом
counsel house жилой дом, принадлежащий городскому совету
condominium кондоминиум (один из видов кооперативной собственности)
landlord (landlady) владелец (владелица) дома (помещения), сдаваемого внаем
tenant (lodger) жилец
tenement снимаемый дом, квартира
tenement house дешевый многоквартирный дом
boarding house пансион
take in lodgers брать (пускать) жильцов
rent – квартирная плата; снимать (помещение):
I have a room to rent. – У меня есть комната для сдачи внаем.
I rent a room. – Я снимаю комнату.
full board полный пансион (трехразовое питание)
half board полупансион (только завтрак)
“B & B” (bed and breakfast) надпись, означающая, что здесь можно переночевать и получить утром завтрак
purchase покупка; покупать
mortgage ипотечный кредит (кредит, взятый для покупки дома и т.д. под залог недвижимости)
downpayment первоначальный взнос
pay interest выплачивать проценты
lend давать деньги в долг
borrow брать деньги в долг
real estate agency агентство по торговле недвижимостью
estate agent агент по торговле недвижимостью
advertise for a house рекламировать дом
ad (advertisement) реклама, объявление
freehold полная собственность на землю или строения
lease договор найма чего-либо
TYPES OF DWELLING ВИДЫ ЖИЛЫХ ПОМЕЩЕНИЙ
detached house отдельный дом
semidetached house дом, имеющий общую стену с другим домом: дом на двух домовладельцев
duplex house двухквартирный дом
terraced house один из расположенных ступенями домов квартала
bungalow одноэтажный дом
log-cabin бревенчатая хижина
high-rise block of flats дом башенного типа
penthouse роскошная квартира (обычно на последнем этаже)
HOUSE PARTS ЧАСТИ ЗДАНИЯ
penthouse надстройка на крыше
window shutter оконные ставни
PREMISES AND OUTHOUSE BUILDINS ПРИЛЕГАЮЩАЯ К ДОМУ ТЕРРИТОРИЯ И НАДВОРНЫЕ ПОСТРОЙКИ
summer house беседка
hot-house обогреваемая теплица
driveway подъездная дорожка
padding pool плавательный бассейн
BUILDING AND REPAIRING A HOUSE СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО И РЕМОНТ ДОМА
parquet паркет; настилать паркет
parqueted floor паркетный пол
condition of the house состояние дома
be in good repair быть в хорошем состоянии
be falling into decay приходить в упадок
be in the state of neglect быть в запущенном состоянии
HOUSE FITTING AND ACCOMODATION КВАРТИРНОЕ ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ И УДОБСТВА
hot-water heating водяное отопление
steam-heating паровое отопление
stove-heating печное отопление
flush смывать воду в туалете
ROOMS ANS INTERIORS КОМНАТЫ И ИНТЕРЬЕР
coat hook крючок
coat hanger плечики
Living-room Жилая комната, гостиная
suite of furniture мебельный гарнитур
piece of furniture мебель (отдельная вещь)
draw the curtain задернуть штору
pull the curtain aside открыть штору
lift the curtain поднять занавес
curtain rail карниз для занавесей
coffee table низкий столик
indoor plants (houseplants) комнатные растения
pot plant горшок с цветком
fitted carpet ковер-палас
dressing-table mirror туалетное зеркало
oilcloth клеенка (скатерть)
working top рабочий стол
pot holder прихват
corner unit угловой стол
dish drainer сушилка для посуды
kitchen chair кухонный стул
kitchen table кухонный стол
coffee pot кофейник
food processor кухонный комбайн
dishwasher посудомоечная машина
Bathroom Ванная и туалет
towel rail вешалка для полотенец
toilet pan унитаз
pedestal mat коврик под унитазом
soap dish мыльница
shower curtain занавеска для душа
bathroom mule шлепанцы
bath mat коврик для ванной
XV. Find English equivalents to the following.
1) квартира; 2) ванная комната; 3) входная дверь; 4) умывальник; 5) встроенный шкаф; 6) стиральная машина; 7) полка; 8) раковина; 9) плита; 10) холодильник; 11) погреб; 12) освещение; 13) туалет, уборная; 14) посудомоечная машина.
XVI. Match the words and phrases in column A with those in column B.
1. a housewarming party а. подниматься по лестнице
2. central heating b. новоселье
3. to take a shower c. оклеивать стены обоями
4. to go upstairs d. центральное отопление
5. to paper walls e. принимать душ
6. a nursery f. детская (комната)
7. a cabinet g. кабинет
8. a study, a den e. шкаф со стеклянными дверцами,
XVII. Replace the words in brackets with corresponding English words.
1. We have no (место) for this wardrobe. 2. He has a (с двумя спальнями) apartment. 3. She lives on the second (этаж) of a (многоэтажный) house. 4. I’m afraid we’ll have to whitewash (потолки). 5. (Встроенная мебель) saves a lot of space. 6. What brand of (стиральная машина) and (посудомоечная машина) could you recommend? 7. The house has got all modern (удобства), such as (центральное отопление), electricity, (горячее водоснабжение). 8. I don’t think these (занавески) match the colour of (обои).
XVIII. Translate it into Russian.
a. 1.We have no room for this big sofa. 2. There is no desk in her room. 3. He lives on the fifth floor of a multi-storeyed house. 4. Be careful when you go down the stairs, two of the lower steps are rotten. 5. He made several steps and found himself at the porch.
b. They took a little elevator to the floor above and Laura led the artist to her sitting room, a wide, airy place, the polished floor covered with deer skins. Shelves of books were everywhere, together with potted plants and tall lamps. A long chair stood at the window, which overlooked the park and lake… (F. Norris)
c. In this small room Martin lived, slept, studied, wrote and kept house. Before the one window, looking on the tiny front porch, was the kitchen table that served as a desk, library and typewriting stand. The bed against the wall occupied two-thirds of the total space of the room.
Martin had to carry water from the kitchen-sink, there was no tap in his room.
A small closet contained his clothes and the books for which there was no room on the table or under the table.
XIX. Read the text.
LIVING IN THE SKIES
Imagine a building one third of the height of Mount Everest, built by robots, and containing a whole city. Imagine you can walk out of your front door in a T-shirt and shorts on a cold winter’s day and take a lift down 500 floors to school. Imagine you can see the sea a mile below you. Imagine you can never open a window. Imagine …
If Japanese architects find enough money for their project you’ll be able to live in a building like that.
Ohbayashi Gumi has designed a two-kilometre high building, Aeropolis, which will stand right in the middle of Tokyo Bay. Over 300,000 people will live in it. It will be 500 floors high, and in special lifts it will take just 15 minutes to get from top to bottom. Restaurants, offices, flats, cinemas, schools, hospitals, and post offices will all be just a few lift stops away. According to the architects, Aeropolis will be the first “city to touch the skies”.
“Tokyo has a population of over 15 million people”, said design manager Mr Shuzimo. “There isn’t enough land in Japan. We’re going to start doing tests to find the best place to build it. I hope people will like living on the 500th floor”.
It will take twenty-five years to build Aeropolis and it will cost over £2,000 million.
Won’t people want to have trees and flowers around them? “We’re going to have green floors, where children can play and office workers can eat their lunch-break sandwiches”, explained Mr Shuzimo. What about fires? “If there is a fire, it will be put out by robots. I hope we’ll get the money we need to build. As soon as we do, we’ll start. This will be the most exciting building in the world”.
XX. Ask and answer questions about Aeropolis, using the following numbers.
-How long will it take to build Aeropolis?
- Twenty-five years.
two thousand million; two (kilometres); five hundred; three hundred thousand; fifteen; fifteen million.
*Would you like to live in Aeropolis? Why?
XXI. Act out the dialogues.
1. ANN HAS NO TASTE
Jane: Ann has no taste at all. Her room is simply awful.
Bob: Awful? Why? What’s wrong with it? What is it like?
J.: It’s rather small. There is a big table in the middle. There is always some food on the table and a big old suitcase under it. There is a long narrow bed by the window and there are some old chairs between the bed and the table. There are also some awful pictures on the walls. And the lamp! Well… I wouldn’t like to comment on that.
B.: Is she very poor?
J.: No, she isn’t. She’s quite well off.
B.: Then why is she living in a room like that?
J.: She has no taste, poor dear.
B.: She’s very much like my aunt Flora. She has a lot of money, but she’s very unwilling to spend it.
2. A WONDERFUL VIEW FROM THE WINDOW
Gold: Swanson Agency, Allan Gold is speaking.
Teilor: Hello. This is Ben Teilor. I called about a two-bedroom apartment two days ago. Is it still vacant, I wonder?
G.: It is, sir.
T.: When could I possibly have a look at it?
G.: In the afternoon after 3 o’clock.
T.: Is 4 o’clock all right? Does it suit you?
G.: O.K. Let’s meet at the door of the apartment. Apt. 5A, No.24. Beach Street.
T.: All right. Thank you.
(After 4 o’clock)
G.: This is a living-room, as you see.
T.: Rather large. What about the bedroom?
G.: Come on, look at it. There is a wonderful view of the ocean from its window.
T.: Is there really? That’s great! How many built-in closets are there?
G.: Two wardrobes and a chest of drawers (one – to keep clothes, the other one – for linen).
T.: Where is the bathroom?
G.: This way, please. Here it is. A bath-tub and a shower. Now let us go to the kitchen. As you see, it has a new sink and a gas stove. You can put a washing machine here, there is enough room for it. A refrigerator, quite new. Do you like the apartment, sir?
T.: Yes, it’s good. I’m ready to rent it.
G.: Well, you can sign the rental agreement in my study.
XXII. Act as an interpreter, translate English phrases into Russian and Russian phrases into English.
VISITING A FRIEND
A: What a fine writing-desk! Walnut, isn’t it?
B: Да, орех. Это итальянский стол.
A: I see. Italian furniture makers have always been famous. This chair with the leather cushion looks very comfortable.
B: Да, очень. Это подарок моего сына. Но когда я работаю за письменным столом, я предпочитаю простой деревянный стул, тот, который стоит у стены.
A: I also have a favourite chair. And what do the windows look out on?
B: Они выходят на маленькую улицу.
A: You’re lucky. Mine face a square, and it’s rather noisy there.
B: Терпеть не могу работать, когда шумно. Ну, пойдем в гостиную, нас ждут.
XXIII. Translate the dialogues from Russian into English.
1. СТО ЛЕТ ТЕБЯ НЕ ВИДЕЛА!
А: Здравствуй! Это ты! Не видела тебя целую вечность!
В: Извини за беспокойство, но я очень хочу посмотреть твой новый дом.
А: Не извиняйся. Входи. Рада тебя видеть.
В: Этот дом достаточно большой для вашей семьи?
А: Да, вполне. Здесь две спальни, две ванных комнаты, два туалета, гостиная, кабинет и кухня.
В: А гараж есть?
А: Да, с северной стороны дома.
В: Удобно жить в этом доме?
А: У нас все удобства: электричество, газ, отопление и телефон.
В: Ты работаешь в городе?
А: Да, я езжу в город три раза в неделю: в понедельник, среду и пятницу. Через день я остаюсь здесь и работаю в своем кабинете. Суббота и воскресенье – мои выходные дни.
В: Сколько времени тебе нужно, чтобы добраться до работы в город?
А: Если я еду на машине, я экономлю много времени.
В: Ты водишь машину?
А: Да. Я убираю комнаты, готовлю и мою посуду. Я все могу делать сама, за исключением ремонта, конечно.
В: Твой сын не живет здесь, верно?
А: Нет, не живет. Он – любитель городской жизни.
2. ЗАМЕЧАТЕЛЬНАЯ НОВОСТЬ.
А: У меня замечательная новость. Мы живем в новой квартире. У нас последний этаж.
В: Вид прекрасный, не так ли?
А: Да. Перед домом – газоны. Много цветов и деревьев.
В: Сколько у вас комнат?
А: У нас четырехкомнатная квартира. Комнаты большие и солнечные. У нас есть спальня, кабинет, гостиная, столовая и кухня.
В: А вся мебель новая?
В: У вас есть стиральная машина и пылесос?
А: Да. Время от времени я чищу ковры.
В: Ты хороший муж! Твоей жене повезло!
А: Да, и мне тоже. У нас хорошая квартира. У нас дома очень уютно. Приезжайте к нам сегодня вечером.
XXIV. Dramatize the situations.
1. You spent last Sunday at your friend’s summer house. Tell your mother what you liked and disliked about the house and its premises. Answer her questions.
2. Discuss with your friend what house you’d like to buy, what you’d like to have around the house, in what area you’d like it to be located, etc.
3. You are a real estate agent. Help your client to find a house he/she is interested in.
4. Convince your friend that to live in a house outside the city is much better than to have an apartment downtown, answer all his arguments.
5. Convince your husband/wife that it’s absolutely necessary to replace the furniture and to redecorate your apartment.
XXV. Topics for oral compositions.
1. Describe the place where you live.
2. What kind of apartment can be ideal for a family of four and why?
3. Describe your best friend’s apartment. Do you like everything there? Why?
XXVI. Read the text.
THE AMERICAN HOME
American apartments are usually described as one-bedroom (studio apartments), two-bedroom or three-bedroom apartments. Two- and three-bedroom apartments usually have a connecting living-room; often they have two bathrooms. Practically all apartments have built-in closets with doors, which are used instead of wardrobes. The walls are often painted rather than wall-papered. Floors are generally covered with wall-to-wall carpeting. Apartment buildings usually have laundry facilities on the ground floor. Almost all apartments have refrigerators; most people now have microwave ovens.
There are two types of apartments: a rented apartment and a condominium, which an individual owns.
People prefer to buy their own houses in the suburbs rather than in central areas of the cities. Private houses are the most expensive.
A mobile home is the cheapest form of housing that can be bought. Mobile homes can be moved from place to place by trucks. Mobile homes are located in special mobile home parks, which are sometimes called mobile villages. They are usually on the outskirts of the cities. Retired people and young people with low income live in mobile homes, which can be bought or rented.
(Adapted from “Life and Issues in the USA”)
XXVII. Answer the questions.
1. How are American apartments usually described? 2. What rooms do they usually have? 3. Where are laundry facilities installed? 4. Which are the two types of apartments? 5. What houses are the most expensive? 6. What can you say about the mobile homes?
XXVIII. Give Russian equivalents to the following.
1) a studio apartment; 2) a closet; 3) facility; 4) a condominium; 5) a mobile home; 6) outskirts; 7) laundry; 8) suburbs.
XXIX. Replace the words in brackets with the corresponding English words.
1. The building is poorly (проектировать). 2. The bench is very (удобный). 3. My kitchen is very (просторный). 4. There is (гараж для трех машин) in the house. 5. (Внизу) a guest is waiting for you. 6. There is no booking-office (поблизости, по соседству). 7. There is (тропинка) to the back door. 8. The window (выходить на) an orchard. 9. This door (вести) to a wooden staircase.
XXX. Read the text.
BUYING A HOUSE
There are two types of organizations central to the buying of houses and flats.
The first is the estate agency.
Let us imagine that Mr and Mrs Smith want to sell their house. First, they ask one or more local agents to visit the house and tell them how much they can sell it for. They will also want to know how much they will pay the agent for his services (usually between 1% and 2% of the selling price). Then the agent will publish the details of the house in newspapers.
Imagine that Mr and Mrs Johnson want to buy a house in the same area. They go the estate agency and inspect the details of the houses on offer. If they like the description of the Smiths’ house, they will visit the property to look at. If they are still interested in the house they speak about the price and if everybody agrees, the house can be sold.
But the Johnsons probably do not have enough money to pay for the house immediately, so what do they do? They go to the second type of institution involved in house buying and selling – the building society.
A building society’s main function is to lend people like the Johnsons enough money to buy the house. Banks also offer a similar service.
Building societies make their money by borrowing money from some members of the public – their “depositors” – and lending it to others. Many British people have building society saving accounts. They save their money with a building society, which pays them interest. The society then lends this money to people who want to buy a house or a flat and charges them a higher interest rate (процентная ставка) on the amount borrowed. This long-term loan is called a “mortgage” (ипотека).
So Mr and Mrs Johnson go to a local building society where they will be asked a number of questions – What jobs do they have? How much do they earn? What are their monthly expanses? And so on. The society will also inspect the house to see if it is worth the money they are asked to lend. All being well, it will offer to lend the Johnsons up to about 90% of the price of the house, to be paid back with interest over 25 years, or sometimes less. When all is agreed and the papers signed, the money is paid to the Smiths and the Johnsons can move in.
XXXI. Answer the questions.
1. If Mr and Mrs Smith want to sell their house, what will they do first? 2. What will they want to know from an estate agent? 3. What will the agent start his work with? 4. Where can the Johnsons know about the houses on offer? 5. Where can people get money to buy a property? 6. How do building societies function? 7. What is a mortgage? 8. What questions will the Johnsons be asked at a local building society and why? 9. How will the mortgage be paid back? 10. Why do people want to get mortgages?
XXXII. Find Russian equivalents to the following.
1) an estate agent; 2) to get a mortgage; 3) to pay interest; 4) a building society; 5) a saving account; 6) to charge an interest rate; 7) the long-term loan; 8) monthly expanses; 9) to inspect the house.
XXXIII. Read the text.
LIVING IN THE CITY
Living in the city has both advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don’t need to own a car. Also, there are a lot of interesting things to do and places to see. For example, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you can easily find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of variety and you never feel bored.
However, for every plus there is a minus. For one thing, you might have a job, but if it isn’t very well paid, you will not be able to afford much, because living in a city is often very expensive. It is difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays. Last of all, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.
Besides, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.
*Give your pros and cons of living in the country.
WORK AND LEISURE
GENERAL NOTIONS ОБЩИЕ ПОНЯТИЯ
gain a living зарабатывать на жизнь
relax делать передышку, расслабляться
weekday будний день
weekend выходной день (конец недели)
day off выходной день
be engaged in заниматься чем-либо
extra-curriculum activity внеклассная, внеаудиторная работа
read-up готовиться (к урокам)
preparative classes подготовительные курсы
chat непринужденно болтать
fall asleep заснуть
be tired of устать: I am tired of ironing.
treasure house сокровищница
senior ученик старшего класса
be fond of нравиться, любить: I am fond of reading.
TYPES OF ACTIVITY РАЗЛИЧНЫЕ ВИДЫ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ
carpentry плотничное дело
dust вытирать пыль
sweep (swept) подметать
skate конек, кататься на коньках
brush чистить (щеткой)
play chess играть в шахматы
go in for jogging заниматься бегом
do one’s bed заправлять постель
do one’s hair укладывать волосы, причесываться
do the flat убираться в квартире
go shopping ходить за покупками
go fishing рыбачить
figure-skating фигурное катание
PLACES TO GO ОБЩЕСТВЕННЫЕ МЕСТА
athletic club спортивный клуб
museum of natural history краеведческий музей
picture gallery картинная галерея
become a subscriber to a library записаться в библиотеку
reader’s card читательский билет
food for the mind пища для ума
admission is free вход свободный
channel канал (в т.ч. телевизионный)
I. Read the text.
Ann McGregor lives in London. She is thirty-four and works for the BBC. She interviews people on an early morning news programme called The World Today. Every weekday she gets up at 3.00 in the morning because the programme starts at 6.30. She loves her work because it is exciting and she meets a lot of very interesting people, but she loves her weekends too.
This is what she tells about her life.
“On Fridays I come home from the BBC at about 2.00 in the afternoon and I just relax.
On Friday evenings I don’t go out, but sometimes a friend comes for dinner. He or she brings the wine and I cook the meal. I love cooking! We listen to music or we just chat.
On Saturday mornings I get up at 9.00 and I go shopping. Then in the evening I sometimes go to the theatre or the opera with a friend. I like opera! Then we eat in my favourite Chinese restaurant.
On Sunday… Oh, on Sunday mornings I stay in bed late, I don’t get up until 11.00! Sometimes in the afternoon I visit my sister. She lives in the country and has two children. I like playing with my niece and nephew, but I leave early because I go to bed at 8.00 on Sunday evenings!”
II. Ask and answer questions about your weekdays and weekends.
What time do you get up on weekdays? – At 7.00.
Do you go out on Friday evenings? – Yes, I do.
Where do you go? – To the disco.
Tell the class about you and your partner.
Maria goes to the disco on Friday evenings and I usually watch TV.
III. Read the text. Answer the three questions.
a. Where does Mr Garret live?
b. What’s his job?
c. Where does he work?
THE LONG DISTANCE TEACHER
Mr Frank Garret, 65, is a schoolteacher. He is English, but lives in France, in the Normandy village of Yerville. Mr Garret lives in France, but he works in England.
Every Monday he leaves home at 2.30 in the morning and drives 101 miles from his village to Boulogne, where he leaves his car and catches the ferry to Folkestone. Then he catches the train to Maidstone in Kent and he arrives at Manor School at 8.25. He teaches French from 9.00 in the morning to 3.30 in the afternoon and then leaves school. He arrives home at 9.30 in the evening. The journey there and back takes twelve hours and costs only 16 pounds.
Fortunately, Mr Garret works in England only one day a week.
And what does he do on the other days? He teaches English! He has a class of eighteen French students in Yerville.
“Yes, on Tuesdays I’m tired,” he says, “but I love my job in England and I love my home in France. I’m a happy man!”
IV. Answer the questions.
1. Is Mr Garret French? 2. How many jobs does he have? 3. Does he go to Boulogne by train? 4. Where does he leave his car? 5. Where does he catch the train? 6. Is the journey cheap or expensive? How much does it cost? 7. Does Mr Garret go to Manor School every day? 8. Why does Nr Garret live in France but work in England?
V. Complete the text about Mr Garret’s journey back home from his school.
Mr Garret ________ Manor School at 3.30 in the afternoon and he ______the train to Folkestone, where he ________ the ferry to Boulogne. Then he ________ from Boulogne back to his village. The journey ______
six hours. He ________ home at 9.30.
VI. Complete the questions.
What time does he leave home in the morning? – At 2.30.
a. What time ______ ______ ______ at Manor School?
b. What time ______ ______ ______ ?
c. When ______ ______ _______ home in the evening?
d. How much _______ the journey ________?
e. How long _______ the journey home ______?
f. How many students _______ he _______ in the English class?
VII. Read the text and tell what Misha did on Sunday.
It was Sunday yesterday. The weather was fine, it was not very cold. The ground and the trees were white with snow.
In the morning my mother said to me: “Misha, you must clean your room, and then you may go for a walk in the afternoon. It is a fine day.”
Soon after breakfast I cleaned my room. I dusted the desk, the bookcase and the bookshelves, swept the floor and watered the flowers.
Then I went for a walk in the park. I took my skates and skated in the park with my friends. At two o’clock I came home.
After dinner my friend came to see me. We played games and talked about our school and our class. Then we saw a new film on TV, which was very interesting.
My parents were not at home in the afternoon, they went to see their friend who had a birthday party.
In the evening I read a book. When my parents came back home, I was glad to see them.
VIII. Read the text and tell what the boy will do on Sunday.
It will be Sunday tomorrow and I shall be at home. I shall sleep up to ten o’clock, then I shall do morning exercises, wash and dress.
Mother asked me to help her about the house, and after breakfast we shall clean the rooms. I shall dust the sofa and the chairs, and sweep the floor in all the rooms. Mother will brush our clothes and cook dinner.
After that my parents and I will go for a walk in the park, which is near our block of flats. Then I shall go to the library and take a book of poems by A.S. Pushkin. I like to read Pushkin’s poems.
After dinner my friend will come to me, and we shall play chess.
In the evening they will show an interesting film or a concert on TV and I shall watch TV.
IX. Read and act it out.
A. INVITATION TO A FOOTBALL MATCH
– Hi. How are you getting on?
– Okay. Thanks.
– Would you like to go to the stadium today? I’ve got two tickets.
– Who is playing?
– “Zvezda” and “Slava”.
– I’d love to. Thank you very much. I’m sure the game’ll be interesting.
– I hope so.
– When does the game begin?
– At 6.30. I’ll come and get you at 5.30.
– Thanks. See you soon.
B. LET US WATCH THE BASKETBALL MATCH
– I say, Ann. Do you really want to watch this TV show?
– Why? Do you think it’s bad?
– It’s boring. Let’s have a look at the programme. What day is it today?
– It’s Friday.
– Well. Let me see. Change to Channel 2. They are going to show a basketball game.
– Is it interesting?
– Oh, yes. We can see the best American basketball players.
Make up a similar dialogue.
X. Read the text.
TIME FOR WORK AND LEISURE
Like all the pupils of the eleventh form I am very busy during my last year at school. I am usually engaged with something from morning till evening. As you know seniors must work hard to gain good results at the end of the school year in order to be successful at their entrance exams. As you sow you shall mow.
Since our classes begin at 8 in the morning I have to get up quite early, at 7 o’clock. Then I do my bed and go to the bathroom where I wash. After that I return to my room to get dressed and to do my hair. All this usually takes me about 20 minutes. Then I have breakfast, which my mother always prepares for my father and me. You know she gets up earliest of all to get everything ready. I always admire my mother for this. Our breakfast is always rather substantial so that we are not hungry till lunchtime. We usually have an omelette or soft-boiled eggs, some sandwiches, as a rule, cheese or ham, and tea or coffee.
As soon as breakfast is over I take my school-bag, say good-bye to my parents and set out for school.
My school is not far from our house. So it takes me about 5 minutes to get there. And I usually arrive at school at 7.40 or 7.45. You know I don’t like to be late. So I am always on time for my classes and I have time to think over the lesson I am going to have.
As a rule we have six or seven lessons every day. They are over at half past two. If we don’t have any extra-curriculum activities I go straight home. When I come home I have dinner. Three times a week my mother asks me to do the flat. So I clean the carpets with the vacuum-cleaner, wash the floor and dust the furniture. Sometimes I also go shopping to buy some food for supper.
At about five o’clock I usually begin preparing my homework. As I have quite a lot of tasks in different subjects it takes three or even more hours to read up for my classes. Twice a week I attend preparative classes at the Pedagogical University. They usually start at 5 and finish at 6.30 or 8 p.m.
In the evening after I have prepared my home task, I rest a little. I watch TV, talk with my parents or just chat with a friend of mine by telephone.
I go to bed at 11 o’clock and you know it doesn’t take me long to fall asleep as I am immensely tired after such a hard day.
But, of course, I don’t only work. Though I attend school six days a week, I am free on Saturday evening and my day off is Sunday. I like Saturday evenings very much because I don’t have to do my homework and am completely free.
Very often I go to a disco with my friends. I am very fond of dancing, so I have an enjoyable time. Sometimes my parents buy tickets to the theatre, mostly the Opera and Ballet Theatre, and we enjoy listening to an opera or watching a ballet. Or from time to time I stay home and spend a quiet evening reading a book or listening to music.
On Sunday I go to see my friends or they come to see me. Sometimes we go to a cafe or to the cinema or just for a walk if the weather is fine.
I think it’s important to have a good rest if you have to work hard. The harder you work the more enjoyable it is for you to rest.
Tell your groupmates about your working day and leisure time.
Ask you deskmate questions about her/his working day and leisure time and tell your groupmates the information you’ve got.
XI. Read the text.
THE AMERICANS ON SUNDAY
How do the people of New York spend their free time? How do they relax and entertain themselves?
The Americans like to visit restaurants. The cost of a visit for two persons is from fifty to one hundred and fifty dollars. You can also go to the cinema that is as popular for young people in New York as it is popular for young people in Russia. Two tickets for a two-hour cinema show will cost fourteen dollars. On weekdays and on Sundays many people go in for jogging or aerobics in athletic clubs.
There are very many museums, exhibition halls and picture galleries for those who prefer food for the mind. For those who are with children there is a nice zoo, a botanical garden, and a sea aquarium with dolphins and seals. The museum of natural history has fossils of all times and countries. To visit these places you will have to pay from one and a half to three dollars. But on some days admission to the museums is free.
And what if you are attracted by a library? Well, there are a lot of libraries in New York. To become a subscriber to a library you must bring the last letter you received by post. After seeing your address and the postmark on the envelope the librarian gives you a temporary reader’s card. Now you may take four or five books for three weeks. Soon you receive a permanent reader’s card and from then on you are allowed to take as many books at a time as you can carry away. If you do not bring those books back in three weeks, you will pay a fine for each day.
How do the Russians spend their free time?
XII. Complete the two telephone conversations. Use the following phrases.
No, it isn’t. I’ll just get her.
Great! See you on Sunday at ten. Bye!
Never mind. Perhaps next time. Bye!
This is Jo speaking.
I’m having a party on Saturday. Can you come?
– Hello. 276694.
– Hello. Can I speak to Jo, please?
– Oh! Hi, Jo. This is Pat. I’m just ringing to check that Sunday is still OK for tennis.
– Yes. That’s fine.
– Hello. Chesswood 4576.
– Hello. Is that Liz?
– Hello. Liz here.
– Hi, Liz. It’s Tom. Listen! _______________________.
– Oh sorry, Tom. I can’t. I’m going to my cousin’s wedding.
Act out the dialogues.
XIII. Read the dialogue translating the words in brackets.
– Hi, Barbara! Did you and Raymond enjoy Margo’s dinner party?
– No, we didn’t. It was (скучно)!
– What about the food?
– Oh, we didn’t like it! We had Duck and Banana Curry!
– Duck and what?! Ugh!
– I know. I don’t like duck and Ray (ненавидит) bananas!
– And their friends? Tell me about their friends. Were they nice?
– Oh, Alice! They were (дружелюбный), but they were so boring! They talked for three hours about their (холодильник) and their (стиральная машина) and their (посудомоечная машина)! And they didn’t ask one question about us. We said very little, only “Yes?” and “No!”
– Oh dear! What a (ужасный) evening!
XIV. Read the dialogue translating the Russian sentences into English and the English ones into Russian.
ON THE LAKE
– Fine morning, isn’t it, Fred?
– Yes, it is. Fishing is my hobby. Когда ты последний раз ходил на рыбалку?
– Last year I went fishing with Dad but we didn’t catch anything.
– To catch fish you have to do this. Prepare the fishing line like this… that’s it… Then drop it into the water… That’s right.
– Я вижу рыбу под лодкой.
– Yes. I got one. Here it is.
– It’s a big one. It’s almost lunchtime but I haven’t got any fish yet.
– Look! You’ve got one too. Pull the line! Oh, it’s an old boot. Sorry, Pete.
– Well. One more and I’ve got a pair of boots.
– It’s all right, Pete. We’ve got our lunch. Давай разведем костер и приготовим мою рыбу. Come on, Pete. Помоги мне.
XV. Read and act it out.
VISITS TO THE MUSEUMS
– Hello, Igor! Are you going anywhere special?
– I’m going to the Hermitage. There’s an exhibition of pictures from galleries of Edinburgh and Glasgow.
– I don’t know much about painting. I never go to such exhibitions.
– But you’ll never understand art if you don’t take any interest in it. We learn a lot by seeing the world through other people’s eyes.
– Hello, Helen! Where are you going in such a hurry?
– To the Polytechnic Museum to see the exhibition of earth satellites.
– The sputniks? Now that’s interesting. Is the entrance free?
– Yes, it is, but there are also a lot of people who want to go. This evening is organized by our club.
– May I come with you?
– I suppose so, if you want to.
– Of course, I do!
– Come on then, Sasha. We must hurry or we’ll be late for the beginning.
XVI. Read and say what was on TV that day.
WHAT’S ON TV?
– I say, dear. I’m very busy just now. Will you get the TV First Channel, please, and see what’s on this evening.
– Yes, certainly, Mum. Where is it? Oh, here it is! Now let’s see. Today’s Saturday, isn’t it? First Channel. Right now there’s a programme for children. Later there’ll be a figure-skating competition. I like to watch figure-skating very much, don’t you, Mum? After that comes a review of the economic situation in the country. The speakers will be a professor from Moscow University and specialists from several ministries. Then comes the usual serial film and a show. At 9 o’clock, of course, comes the information programme. That’ll be followed by a concert of pop songs.
– Is there anything interesting on the Second Channel?
– Right now there’s an information programme. After that they’ll show a film. Then comes “News”.
– What about educational programmes? Perhaps, there is something you’d like to see.
– Oh, no, not now, Mum! I’d like to have a rest from all that.
– Well, then, we’ll see the film. Turn the TV on to the Second Channel. I’ll be ready to sit down in a few minutes and have a rest.
XVII. Topics for oral compositions.
1. Tell about your family’s working day.
2. How do the members of your family spend their free time?
3. What is your idea of the best way of spending free time?
XVIII. Read the text.
THE USE OF LEISURE
By the way in which a man uses his leisure his character can be told – more surely than by the way he does his work. For most men work is necessary to gain a living. Vast numbers of men have been forced by economic necessity to take the first job that came their way. But in their leisure time they do what they really want to do.
Some people are completely passive during their leisure hours. If such people go out they go to a cinema or a dancing hall, and if the latter, they do not dance but simply sit and watch others dancing.
A different type of person hurries home from work full of eagerness to do something he has been planning for his leisure time. Perhaps his hobby is carpentry or model engineering, or gardening, or he might wish to write, or to study some subject in which he is interested. This is the creative type of character.
Leisure should be refreshment; it should send a man out with fresh spirits to battle with the problems of life. Sometimes this freshness comes not from doing anything, but by filling one’s mind with fresh springs of beauty. Many people like contemplating nature, listening to music, or reading books. By this sort of occupation a man makes his own mind a richer and fuller treasure house. This is the true use of leisure.
(From “Fifty Model Essays” by Joyce Miller)
XIX. Answer the questions.
1. Why can a person’s character be told by the way he uses his leisure? 2. What types of people are there by the way they spend their leisure? 3. What do passive people do during leisure hours? 4. How does a creative type of character spend his leisure time? 5. Why should leisure be refreshment?
XX. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases.
1) досуг; 2) огромное количество; 3) свежие источники красоты; 4) садоводство; 5) полный стремления; 6) сокровищница; 7) творческий; 8) род занятий.
XXI. Answer the questions.
1. What type of character are you? 2. Are you an out-going person or not? 3. What is your favourite occupation in leisure time? 4. Did your parents choose their jobs by economic necessity? 5. What is your friend’s hobby?
WEATHER AND SEASONS
How do you do! Здравствуйте!
(I am) glad to see you. Я рад вас видеть.
How are you? Как вы поживаете?
I am fine./Not so well. Отлично./Не очень хорошо.
I am upset. Я расстроен.
I’m in a fix. У меня неприятности.
How are things?/How is life? Kaк (идут) дела? Как жизнь?
Ship-shape./Tip-top. В полном порядке.
As usual./Just the same. Kaк обычно./Без изменений.
No complaints./Could be better. Не жалуюсь./Moгло быть лучше.
How do you feel? Kaк вы себя чувствуете?
I feel fine./Quite fit. Я чувствую себя отлично./Я в хорошей форме.
Out of key. Не в настроении.
How are you getting on? Kaк ваши успехи?
Everything is all right./O.K. Все в порядке.
I’m just drifting along. Плыву по течению.
Lots of troubles/worries. Mного неприятностей /хлопот.
Cheer up!/Chin up! He унывай!/He падай духом!
Let me/may I introduce myself. Разрешите представиться.
May I introduce Mr... Разрешите представить м-pa...
I’d like to introduce my friend… Я бы хотел представить моего друга. Meet my friend...Познакомьтесь с моим другом...
This is my wife... Познакомьтесь с моей женой…
(I'm) glad to meet you. Рад познакомиться.
Happy to meet you. Счастлив познакомиться.
SAYING GOOD-BYE ПРОЩАНИЕ
Good-bye, it’s been nice to meet you. До свидания, было приятно познакомиться (встретиться) с вами.
(Hope to) see you soon (again, later). (Надеюсь) увидимся скоро (снова, позднее).
(I’ll) be seeing you soon. Скоро увидимся.
(Give) My best wishes (best regards), my love to... (Передайте) привет…
So long./Good luck!/Keep well! Пока./Cчастливо!/Будьте здоровы!
What’s the weather like? Какая погода (сегодня)?
The weather keeps fine. Держится хорошая погода.
It’s warm (hot, sunny, clear, windy, dry). Тепло (жарко, солнечно, ясно, ветрено, cyxo).
It’s cold (cloudy, wet, damp). Холодно (облачно, сыро, влажно).
The weather is fine (fair, lovely). Погода прекрасная.
The weather is nasty/foul. Погода отвратительная.
It’s getting chilly/frosty. Становиться прохладно/морозно.
It's drizzling/raining heavily. Идет моросящий дождь/сильный дождь.
It looks like rain./It’s sure to rain. Наверно, пойдет дождь./Наверняка будет дождь.
What's the forecast (for tomorrow)? Какой прогноз (на завтра)?
It will be sleeting/thawing. Будет мокрый снег/оттепель.
We may have severe frosts (heavy rains, showers and thunderstorms). Могут быть сильные морозы (сильные дожди, ливни и грозы).
Forecasts warn of... Прогноз предупреждает o...
thick fog, poor visibility густой туман, плохая видимость
dirty/rough weather ненастная погода
(further) outlook перспектива на погоду (прогноз)
light variable wind легкий переменный ветер
moderate fog; cloudy with rain умеренный туман; пасмурно с дождем
fresh to strong gale is expected ожидается очень сильный ветер, переходящий в штормовой
There’s a nip in the air. Мороз пощипывает.
The weather is improving. Погода налаживается.
There was no break in the weather. В погоде не было перемен.
I. Listen, memorize, reproduce.
Mike: Hello, old chap. Haven’t seen you for ages.
Bill: Hello, Mike. Glad to see you. How are you getting on?
Mike: No complaints. And how are you?
Bill: (I’m) fine, thanks. Be seeing you later.
John: Hi, Nick. (It’s) nice to see you.
Nick: Hi, John. How are things?
John: Ship-shape. Thank you. Any news from home?
Nick: No news. I’m quite upset.
John: Cheer up. Everything will be O.K.
Ann: What is the weather like today?
Bob: It is getting cold and windy.
Ann: What’s the temperature?
Bob: 12 degrees above zero.
Ann: Do you think it will rain in the afternoon?
Bob: Yes, it looks like rain. The sky is getting dark.
Henry: Hello. How do you like the weather?
Bob: It is just lovely: warm and sunny. I hope it’ll keep fine.
Henry: Do you know the forecast for tomorrow?
Bob:Yes, it will be cloudy and warmer than today. We may have heavy rain and even showers in the afternoon.
II. Read the dialogue and act it.
Peter: You know, John, there are some things which are easy to English people but very difficult to those who study the language. For instance, what should I say when I am introduced to someone?
John: Oh, just say “How do you do?” when formally introduced or when you meet a person for the first time.
Peter: And what does he answer?
John: He answers in the same way “How do you do?”, English people don’t think of “How do you do?” as a question, it's just a greeting. If you really want to know about your friend’s health, you say “How are you?”
Peter: It’s just what I wanted to know. Well, do you say “Good day” when you meet someone?
John: No. “Good day” is old-fashioned and not used nowadays. An English person generally says: “Good morning”, “Good afternoon” or “Good evening” to people he knows little or when the greeting is more formal. To those you know well you may just say “Morning” or “Evening”. The universal informal greeting is “Hello” which is generally used with the first name. Then the Englishman will probably speak of the weather and say: “A nice day, isn’t it?” or “A fine day, isn’t it?” or “It’s cold today, isn't it?” or “Nasty weather we are having”. By the way, in Britain people talk about the weather when they can’t think of anything else to talk about or if they don’t know each other well enough to talk about personal matters. The weather is an ever-interesting, even thrilling topic, and you must be good at discussing the weather.
Peter: Thank you; I’ll remember that. And do you say “Good night” in the evening?
John: No, we don't when we are greeting a person, but only when he is leaving us or when we are leaving a shop or an office after eight o’clock at night. The usual phrase to use when you leave is “Good-bye”, but there are a number of other less formal ways of parting, such as: “Bye-bye”, “Cheerio”, “See you later” or “I’ll be seeing you soon”. When parting for long we say “Farewell”.
Peter: Well, John, this has been a very useful piece of information. Thank you very much.
John: Oh, that’s all right. By the way, when somebody thanks you for your help you can also say “You are always welcome” or “Don’t mention it” or “Not at all”.
Words and Phrases
personal matters личные дела
thrilling topic волнующая тема
to part расставаться, прощаться
Phrases to Remember
You are (always) welcome. Всегда к вашим услугам.
Don’t mention it; Not at all. Не стоит благодарности.
That's all right. Ничего. Все в порядке.
It is very kind of you. Очень любезно с вашей стороны.
III. Answer the questions.
1. What is the most usual formal greeting in English which is suitable any time of the day? 2. What is the universal informal greeting? 3. What are the common replies to the question “How are you?” 4. What do you say when greeting a person you don’t know well after lunch time? (after 6 p.m.; when greeting a friend?) 5. Which are the less formal ways of saying good-bye? 6. When do you say “Good night”? 7. What do you say when parting for long? 8. What do people say when formally introduced? 9. What should you say when someone thanks you? 10. Why must you be good at discussing the weather?
IV. Respond to the statements given below. Keep the conversation going. Make use of the following replies.
Not at all. Don’t mention it. That’s all right. You are (always) welcome.
1. We are so glad to see you. Thank you for coming. 2. Thank you for the useful information. 3. Thanks a lot for your advice. 4. Thank you for telling me all about it. 5. You've been very helpful. I don’t know how to thank you. 6. It was (is) very kind of you (to do it). Thank you.
V. Make up dialogues and act them.
Situations: 1) You meet your friend (teacher, etc.), greet him (her) and talk about the weather before parting. 2) You meet your (school) teacher and introduce your wife (husband) or friend to him (her).
Speech Patterns to the Text
l. One can never depend on the weather. Никогда нельзя полагаться на погоду.
2. One can never know when (what, how)... Никогда нельзя знать, когда (что, как)…
3. We look forward to summer holidays (or seeing you again). Мы с нетерпением ждем летних каникул (или встречи с вами).
4. It’s hard to bear dampness... Трудно переносить влажность...
5. It doesn’t matter so much, if the weather is cold. Не имеет большого значения, если погода будет холодная.
VI. Practise the patterns in examples of your own.
VII. Read the text.
THE ENGLISH ABOUT THE ENGLISH WEATHER
The English weather on the whole is not exceptionally good. It’s very damp, they have a great deal of rain and the English summer is usually disappointing. They expect during winter to have in summer two or three months of extremely good weather, sunshine and hot weather, hot enough to bathe, to go to the sea. But usually when the summer comes, summer months are rather cold, much colder than one had expected, always a great deal of rain. The weather is very changeable and one never knows when there are going to be long periods of rain. One can never depend on the weather! So most people, who look forward to the summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer, to France or somewhere on the Continent1. Though the sea in England is usually, even in the middle of summer, quite cold, those who stay in England go to the seaside, or plan some sort of walking trips, especially in the northern districts of England, such as the Lake District. A very great many people spend the summer simply walking, staying in youth hostels and enjoying the beautiful places around.
The English winter on the whole is not as severe as the Russian winter. They have some frosts, snow, it’s very cold, damp, unpleasant, but it’s never too cold to go outside or to enjoy winter sports. Again in England they don’t have a great deal of snow; it’s never deep and sometimes is very little at all. The most unpleasant aspect of the English weather is fog and smog. This is in extremely big towns and especially in London. In London fogs are very unpleasant. They can stop traffic and it’s hard to bear dampness. When autumn comes, of course, they get a great deal of rain; the weather is very damp and rather nasty.
This is partly compensated by the fact that many people in England have large open fires in their homes, although now central heating, of course, and electric fires are very popular. When people gather round the fire and talk or watch television, the cold and dampness outside don't seem to matter so much.
1the Continent – European Continent (in contrast to the British Isles)
Words and Phrases
on the whole в общем, в целом
a great deal of (rain) много (дождей)
changeable weather изменчивая погода
extremely/exceptionally good (weather) исключительно хорошая погода
to disappoint разочаровывать
youth hostel туристический лагерь
to gather round the (open) fire собираться вокруг камина
compared to/in comparison with по сравнению c
as to/as for что касается
VIII. Agree with the negative statements. Give your reason. The following model may be helpful.
Model: Teacher – English weather on the whole is not very good.
Student – No, it isn’t. It’s very damp.
1. The English summer is usually not very warm. 2. Many people who look forward to the summer holidays do not stay in England. 3. They don’t have a great deal of snow in England. 4. The English winter is not as severe as the Russian winter. 5. It’s never too cold to go for a long walk or to enjoy winter sports. 6. The sea in England is not warm enough to bathe. 7. London fogs are not easy to bear. 8. You can’t depend on the English weather.
IX. Speak about the weather: a) in England; b) in your home town. Try to use the following:
usually/generally, especially, exceptionally, extremely, on the whole, as to/as for, as a rule, compared to/in comparison with, actually/in fact.
Speech Patterns to the Text
1. We had to give up our outing. Нам пришлось отказаться от поездки за город.
2. I wonder when he is going to come (what they are going to do). Интересно, когда он собирается прийти (что они собираются делать).
X. Practise the patterns in examples of your own.
XI. Read the text.
After Jerome K. Jerome
Weather reports are often misleading. They report what happened yesterday or the day before and not what is going to happen today.
I remember one Sunday in autumn that was spoiled because of the weather report in the newspaper. “Heavy rains and thunderstorms today,” it said and we had to give up our outing and we stayed at home all day waiting for the rain to start.
In the morning the sun was shining brightly and there was not a cloud in the sky. People passed our house on their way to the country. Looking out of the window at them we thought that they would get wet to the bones and smiled to ourselves. At twelve o'clock we began to wonder when those heavy rains were going to come. “They’ll come in the afternoon,” we said to each other. And when the afternoon was almost gone and no rain came we were sure it would catch fresh-air fans on their way home. The next morning we read that it was going to be a fine warm day, and we went out without our raincoats and umbrellas. Half an hour later it began to rain heavily and a cold wind blew so that we came home with bad colds and had to go to bed.
Words and Phrases
to mislead вводить в заблуждение
to spoil испортить
to wonder удивляться, интересоваться
Phrases to Remember
to get wet to the bones промокнуть до костей
to have a (bad) cold; to catch a cold (сильно) простудиться
a fresh-air fan любитель свежего воздуха
XII. Retell the story as if it happened to you.
1. Do you believe weather reports? 2. Are weather reports often misleading? Why do you think so? 3. What’s the latest weather report? 4. Do you know the (weather) forecast for today (this month)?
XIV. Comment on the statement.
Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.
XV. Explain the sayings.
“A fair-weather friend” and “a friend in need is a friend indeed.”
Speech Patterns to the Dialogue
1. He seems to be strong enough for this work (or to do this). По-видимому, он достаточно сильный для этой работы (или чтобы сделать это).
2. They are not used to rough weather in this area. Они не привыкли к ненастной погоде в этом районе.
3. They are getting used to our changeable weather. Они начинают привыкать к нашей изменчивой погоде.
XVI. Practise the patterns in examples of your own.
XVII. Read the dialogue.
THE WEATHER AT SEA
(Two sailors are discussing the weather conditions at sea)
A.: Look, they are weighing anchor in spite of gale warning.
B: What of it? That sailing vessel seems to be strong enough to meet any big storm.
A: All the same. I don’t like the sea there, beyond the break-water. Look at those high waves! Have you heard the latest weather forecast?
B: The radio operator has already warned us of dirty weather. Northeasterly winds and gales are expected, visibility moderate to poor, and in future perhaps fog!
A: Not a nice perspective at all, particularly for those who are not used to rough weather.
B: Such weather is no surprise; storms, rains, squalls, even sleet and snow are quite frequent in these areas of the North Sea at this time of the year.
A: I remember a heavy storm on our way from Amsterdam to Hull two years ago. I must say I was very sorry for our passengers who looked quite miserable, and some of them were terribly seasick.
B: As far as I know there is no remedy for seasickness.
A: The best thing for a poor sailor is to go to the boat deck in the middle of the ship to get some fresh air, isn’t it?
B: Quite so. By the way, what time does Rugby station broadcast its meteo bulletins?
A: According to the schedule, the next bulletin must be at 16.00 G.M.T.
B: It's only ten to 3 p.m. now. Let’s hope the weather broadcast from Rugby will bring us good news.
Words and Phrases
to weigh anchor сниматься с якоря
gale warning штормовое предупреждение
to broadcast передавать по радио
to look miserable выглядеть несчастным
to be seasick болеть морской болезнью
poor/good sailor человек, плохо/хорошо переносящий качку
G.M.T. = Greenwich Mean Time среднее время по гринвичскому меридиану
Phrases to Remember
All the same. Все равно.
As far as I know... Насколько мне известно...
There is no remedy for... Не существует средства (лекарства) от…
The best thing... Самое лучшее...
Quite so! Именно так!
according to the schedule (амер.) по расписанию
XVIII. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reason. The following phrases may be helpful.
Quite so. Exactly. It’s (partly) true. It (greatly) depends (on). Not quite. Just the opposite. I don’t think so. I can’t agree with you (here).
1. The ship’s operator receives the weather forecast twice a day. 2. The weather reports are broadcast according to the definite schedule. 3. The radio operator warns the ship’s navigator only in case rough weather is expected. 4. Nowadays poor visibility or thick fog doesn’t affect the ship’s speed. 5. Northeasterly winds and gales generally mean dirty weather. 6. Marine forecasts often give warnings of typhoons and cyclones in the Atlantic. 7. Storms, rains, squalls and even snow are not frequent in the North Sea. 8. Dirty weather is no surprise in the Baltic at any time of the year. 9. Ships very seldom run into dirty weather in the southern seas. 10. Poor sailors are those who can’t get used to rough weather.
XIX. Discuss the weather conditions at sea (e.g. the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, etc.). The following words and phrases may be useful.
To expect; to warn; to depend on; to receive weather forecast; to ask for weather reports; to contact/to consult coast stations; to be frequent; to run into a (heavy) storm; thick fog; poor visibility; variable wind; changeable weather; rough passage.
XX. Read the text. Discuss it.
IN THE STORM
After J. Conrad
It was January, and the weather was beautiful – the beautiful sunny winter weather that has more charm in it than summertime, because it is unexpected, and you know it can’t last long. It lasted all down the North Sea, all down the English Channel, and it lasted till we were three hundred miles or so to the westward of the Lizards; then the wind went round to the south-west, and in two days it blew a gale. It blew day after day: it blew without interval, without mercy, without rest. Day after day and night after night there was heard nothing round the ship but the howl of the wind and the noise of water pouring over her deck.
There was no rest for her and no rest for us. She rolled, she pitched, and stood on her head, she sat on her tail, and we had to hold on to the rail while on deck and cling to bunks when below.
Then our ship began to leak and leaked badly – not enough to drown us at once, but enough to kill us with the work at the pumps.
We pumped all night, all day, all the week. And while we pumped the ship was going from us by pieces. And we pumped: it seemed to last for months, for years. We forgot the day of the week, the name of the month, what year it was and whether we had ever been ashore. There was for us no sky, there were for us no stars, no sun, no universe – nothing but angry clouds and an infuriated sea.
XXI. Memorize and reproduce the text (or a part of it).
XXII. Speak about your own experience (or observation) of the storm at sea. Use as many words from the text as possible.
Speech Patterns to the Text
1. I want you to help me. Я хочу, чтобы вы мне помогли.
2. It’s supposed to be quite useful. Считается, что это весьма полезно.
3. What am I supposed to do? Что мне полагается делать?
4. If I had known this before, I should have never done it. Если бы я знал это раньше, я бы никогда этого не сделал.
XXIII. Practise the patterns in examples of your own.
XXIV. Read the text.
FRESH AIR WILL KILL YOU
After Art Buchwald
Smog, which was once the big attraction of Los Angeles, can now be found all over the country and people are getting so used to polluted air that it’s hard for them to breathe anything else.
I was lecturing recently, and one of my stops was Flagstaff, Arizona, which is about 7,000 miles above sea level.
As soon as I got out of the plane, I smelled something peculiar.
“What’s that smell?” I asked the man who met me at the plane.
“Oh, you must be talking about the fresh air. A lot of people come out here who have never smelled fresh air before.”
“What am I supposed to do?” I asked suspiciously.
“Nothing. You just breathe it like any other kind of air. It’s supposed to be good for your lungs.”
I looked around and everything appeared crystal clear. It was strange sensation and made me feel very uncomfortable.
“You’re just saying that because you want me to stay here,” I said. “Nobody who has lived in a big city can stand fresh air for a very long time.”
“Well, if the fresh air bothers you, why don’t you put a handkerchief over your nose and breathe through your mouth?”
“Okay, I’ll try it. If I’d known I was coming to a place that had nothing but fresh air, I would have brought a gas mask.”
We drove in silence. About fifteen minutes later I asked, “How come there’s no air pollution around here?”
“Flagstaff doesn’t seem to attract industry. I guess we’re really behind the times. The only smoke we get is when the Indians start signalling each other by making fires.”
The fresh air was making me feel dizzy.
“Isn’t there a diesel bus around here that I could breathe into for a couple of hours?”
“Not at this time of the day. I might be able to find a truck for you.”
We found a truck driver, and gave him a five-dollar bill, and he let me put my head near his exhaust pipe for a half-hour.
I was immediately revived and able to give my speech.
Words and Phrases
polluted air загрязненный воздух
to breathe дышать
peculiar странный, необычный
smell; to smell запах, чувствовать запах
suspiciously с недоверием, подозрительно
strange sensation странное ощущение
to bother беспокоить
handkerchief носовой платок
to drive ехать на машине, управлять машиной
feel dizzy испытывать чувство тошноты
truck грузовая машина
exhaust pipe выхлопная труба
to revive приходить в себя, приводить в чувство
Phrases to Remember
how come (Am.) как случилось
I guess (Am.) we’re really behind the times. Я думаю, мы, в самом деле, отстаем от времени.
XXV. Retell the story in short.
XXVI. Comment on the main idea of the story.
XXVII. Say what you know about the problem of air pollution.
XXVIII. Translate it into English.
1. Какой прогноз погоды на завтра? 2. Какая сегодня отвратительная погода! 3. Какой сырой, ветреный и мрачный день! 4. На улице очень холодно. 5. Сильный дождь (сильный мороз). 6. Моросит. 7. Солнце показывается из-за туч. Будет ясная погода. 8. Солнце всходит (садиться). 9. Будет дождь (снег). 10. Каждый день облачное небо, туман, ливни, грозы. Этот период ненастной погоды продолжается уже слишком долго. 11. Какая вспышка молнии! Неужели она (молния) ударила куда-нибудь? 12. Какая неустойчивая погода! Дождь периодически шел (то шел, то прекращался) в течение недели. Со стороны моря надвинулся густой туман. Вчера мы попали под такой ливень! 13. +25°, и температура продолжает повышаться. Жуткая жара. Тяжело даже в тени. В помещении невозможно находиться – так душно. 14. Температура ниже нуля. Ожидается первый снег. Да смотрите – он уже падает большими мокрыми пушистыми хлопьями. 15. Поднимается ветер! Возможно, будет пурга. Какой сильный снегопад! 16. Ночью, несомненно, будут заморозки. Какие красивые узоры сделал мороз на окнах! На улице очень скользко. 17. Жуткий холод, ни проблеска солнца ... промерз я насквозь, уши болели, пальцем пошевельнуть не мог … закоченел до смерти. 18. Пруд покрывается льдом и промерзает насквозь. …Стало теплее, чем вчера, но солнце не показывалось, и гулять было не очень приятно. 19. Началась оттепель. Снег тает. На улицах лужи. В воздухе чувствуется весна. 20. Видимо, завтра будет прекрасный день.
XXIX. Read the text and give its literary translation.
A RAINY DAY IN AN INN
After Washington Irving
It was a rainy Sunday in the gloomy month of November. I had been detained in the course of a journey by a slight indisposition, from which I was recovering. But I was obliged to keep within doors all day, in an inn of the small town of Derby. A wet Sunday in a country inn! Whoever has had the luck to experience one can alone judge of my situation.
The windows of my bed-room looked out among tiled roofs and stacks of chimneys, while those of my sitting-room commanded a full view of the stable-yard.
The place was littered with wet straw that had been kicked about by travellers and stable-boys. In one corner was a stagnant pool of water surrounding an island of muck. There were several half-drowned fowls crowded together under a cart. Among them was a miserable crestfallen cock, drenched out of all life and spirit, his drooping tail matted, as it were, into a single feather, along which the water trickled down his back. Near the cart was a half-dozing cow chewing the cud, and standing patiently to be rained on. A horse, tired of the loneliness of the stable, was poking his head out of the window, with the rain dripping on it from the eaves. An unhappy cur, chained to a dog-house hard by, uttered something now and then between a bark and a yelp.
Everything, in short, was comfortless and forlorn, excepting a crew of hard-drinking ducks, assembled, like boon companions, round a puddle, and making a riotous noise over their liquor.
XXX. Read the text, learn and then reproduce it.
SEASONS AND WEATHER
The year is divided into four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In spring nature awakens from her long winter sleep. The trees are filled with new life, the earth is warmed by the rays of the sun, and the weather gets gradually milder. The fields and the meadows are covered with fresh green grass. The woods and forests are filled with the songs of the birds. The sky is blue and cloudless. At night, millions of stars shine in the darkness.
When summer comes the weather gets warmer still and sometimes it’s very hot. It’s the farmer’s busy season – he works in his fields from morning till night. The grass must be cut and the hay must be made, while the dry weather lasts. Sometimes the skies are overcast with heavy clouds. There are storms with thunder, lightning and hail.
Autumn brings with it the harvest-time, when the crops are gathered in and the fruit is picked in the orchards. The days get shorter and the nights longer. The woods turn yellow and brown, leaves begin to fall from the trees, and the ground is covered with them. The skies are grey, and very often it rains.
When winter comes, we’re obliged to spend more time indoors because out-of-doors it’s cold. We may get fog, sleet and frost. Ponds, lakes, rivers and streams are frozen, and the roads are sometimes covered with slippery ice or deep snow. The trees are bare. Bitter north winds have stripped them of all their leaves.
XXXI. Find various pictures of the four seasons and 1) describe the weather and the scenery; 2) ask your group-mate what is represented in the pictures; 3) make up a dialogue using these pictures.
1. AMERICAN WEATHER
As to the weather in Washington you never know just what to expect: sometimes it’s April in January, and it looks like March in December or May.
Mark Twain wrote about it:
“When you arrived at the station at night, it was snowing. When you reached the hotel it was sleeting. When you went to bed, it was raining. During the night it froze hard, and the wind blew some trees down. When you got up in the morning, it was foggy. When you finished your breakfast at ten o’clock and went out, the sunshine was brilliant. You will like the climate in Washington when you get used to it.”
A navy officer unexpectedly stepped into the barracks.
A young sailor sprang to attention, and in a thin voice said:
“Good morning, Sir!”
The navy officer looked at the sailor for an age-long second and then he commented confidentially:
“When I pass you in future I want a salute, and not an inaccurate weather report.”
During a severe storm Sparks (radio/wireless operator) came to the captain’s bridge and brought a weather report which ran as follows:
“Sea calm, visibility good, wind fresh, moderate.”
Sparks asked the Captain:
“How do they know all these things, Sir?”
“They have all sorts of instruments,” replied the captain.
“Don’t they ever look out of the window?”
PART II. GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE USE OF ARTICLES WITH COMMON NOUNS
The indefinite article is used:
1. When the speaker presents the object (expressed by the noun) as belonging to a certain class. In this case it has the meaning of «какой-нибудь», «какой-то, один», «некий». In the plural no article is used in this case:
It happened in a small town in Siberia.
He bought a book yesterday.
2. When a person or a thing is introduced for the first time. After the first reference we use “the”:
I watched a car. The car stopped near our house.
3. With a predicative noun, then we say that the object belongs to a certain class. Usually such nouns denote a profession or characteristic:
He is a doctor.
Your brother is a nice man.
4. When the noun is used in a general sense and has the meaning of “every” (любой, всякий, каждый):
A child can understand it.
5. A/an preserves its old original meaning of “one”:
He didn’t say a word.
6. We use a/an in some grammatical structures:
It is a book.
This is a picture.
She has a cat.
There is a book on the table.
What a clever man!
7. We use a/an after the attributes such, rather, quite:
He is such a clever man.
8. A/an with price, distance and frequency:
80 p a kilo
40 km an hour
twice a day
9. A/an or zero with reference to illness:
- a/an with these illnesses: a cold, a headache, a sore throat
- a/an or zero with these: catch (a) cold, have (a) backache
- no article with these plurals: measles, mumps, shingles
- no article with these: (high) blood pressure, flu, gout, hepatitis.
The definite article is used:
1. When the speaker and the listener know what particular object is meant:
How did you like the play?
2. When the speaker uses an attribute pointing out a particular object – a particularising attribute:
This is the house that Jack built.
3. When the situation (context) itself makes the object definite:
The wedding looked sad. The bride was too old and the bridegroom was too young.
4. When the noun denotes a unique thing: the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, the Universe, the Galaxy, the Solar system, etc.:
The Sun was getting warmer.
5. With nouns used in a generic sense (as a type or a genre):
The tragedy and the comedy appeared in Greece.
The pine grows in the North.
But in a generic sense with the noun man no article is used; with the noun woman the definite article or no article is used:
His trust in man has been destroyed.
He has always been interested in that mysterious being – the woman.
6. With substantivised adjectives and participles: the old, the dead, the rich, the poor, the blind, the wounded, the sick, etc.:
There are special schools for the blind and the deaf.
7. We use the when there is only one of something: the President, the manager, the director, the captain, the United Nations, (but Congress, Parliament), the Titanic, the Constitution, the government, the weather, the Labour party, etc.:
Paris is the capital of France.
8. We use the with the words: the country, the mountains, the seaside, the weekend, the cinema, the theatre, the radio, the police, the fire brigade, the army, the post office, the bank, the doctor, the top, the bottom, the dentist:
Do you often go to the theatre?
But: We watch television.
9. We use the for musical instruments:
Can you play the guitar?
10. We use the in front of the nationality nouns (in general): the Chinese, the Russians, the Americans, the Germans, the British, etc.
No article (zero) is used:
1. In front of plural countable nouns used in general statements:
Dogs eat meat.
Oranges are good for you.
2. In front of uncountable nouns (always singular) used in general statements:
I like ice-cream.
Coffee is produced in Brazil.
3. In front of most proper nouns (names spelt with a capital letter):
Tolstoy is my favourite writer.
But we use the when the reference is specific, not in general statements:
The oranges from Spain are sweet.
I used all the butter that was in the butter dish.
I meant the Tolstoy who wrote “Peter I”.
4. With the names of meals:
What time is lunch?
We had dinner in a restaurant.
What did you have for breakfast?
a) we say a meal:
We had a meal in a restaurant.
b) we say a when there is an adjective before lunch/breakfast etc.:
Thank you. That was a nice lunch.
5. With the words: prison, school, university, college, church – when we are thinking of the idea of these places and what they are used for:
After I leave school I want to go to University. (as a pupil / a student)
Excuse me, where is the University, please? (a particular building)
6. With the words: bed, work, home:
Is Tom still in bed?
Let’s go home.
THE USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS
geographical names no article the definite article notes
continents, countries, cities/towns, villages Africa, Asia; Latin America, Central Asia; France; London;
but: the village of Petrovka when having a particularizing attribute:
- The Philadelphia he was born in … the word groups are always used with the:
- the United States
- the United Kingdom of Great Britain
- the Netherlands
- the Hague
- the Ukraine
- the Crimea
- the Caucasus
oceans, rivers, seas, channels/canals, deserts the Pacific;
the Black Sea; the English Channel,
the Suez Canal; the Sahara
lakes Lake Baikal, Lake Ontario the Baikal,
Everest mountain chains:
islands a single island:
Sicily island groups:
the Bermudas, the British Isles, the Bahamas
regions North America, Latin America, Central Asia, western Canada, southern Spain the Middle East, the Far East,
the north of England,
the south of France
four cardinal points of the compass the South,
the East but:
from East to West,
from North to South
Names of Persons
names of persons no article the definite article the indefinite article
names of persons - There was a letter from Susan.
- Young Jolyon was standing by the piano. a) to indicate the whole family:
- He is very different from the rest of the Kents.
b) with the name modified by a particularising attribute:
- Is he the Sheldon who is a writer?
a) one member of a family:
- I have often wondered if Tim was really a Burton.
b) when names of persons become countable nouns indicating typical features of a well-known name:
- She felt like an Alice in Wonderland.
c) names of persons modified by the adjective “certain”:
- I heard it from a certain Mr Jagger.
nouns of relationship a) followed by a proper name:
b) not followed by a proper name and used only by the members of the family:
- Is Mother back? a) if other people’s relations are meant:
- The son was as clever as the father.
b) mind the expressions:
- Becky was the daughter of an artist.
nouns denoting ranks, titles, followed by a proper name academician
Brown nouns denoting profession followed by a proper name:
- The painter Warhol left many fine pictures.
Pronouns fall under the following groups:
Personal: I, he, she, it, we, you, they.
Possessive: my, his, her, its, our, your, their.
Reflexive: myself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourself (yourselves), themselves.
Reciprocal: each other, one another.
Demonstrative: this (these), that (those), such, the same.
Interrogative: who, whose, what, which.
Defining: each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, all, either, both, other, another.
Indefinite: some, any, somebody, anybody, something, anything, someone, anyone, one.
Negative: no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing.
Personal and Possessive Pronouns
Personal pronouns have two cases; there are corresponding possessive pronouns and their absolute forms.
nominative objective possessive pronouns absolute forms
1. We don’t have singular and plural forms of you. We say “You’re right” to someone we don’t know at all (Вы) or we know very well (Ты), to a child or to an adult.
2. We use it for things, to refer to animals, a baby or a child. We use he, she, who when we refer to pets, ships, cars, motorbikes, a country if a reference is “affectionate”:
Roger is a good dog. He is my best friend.
In 1941, America assumed her role as a world power.
3. We use objective pronouns after “to be”, “than” and in answer to questions “Who?”:
Who is it? – It’s me/him/her/us/them.
He is taller than me/him/her.
4. Possessive pronouns must go in front of nouns:
He is my son.
Is it your name?
5. Absolute forms stand on their own or they can be used in such constructions as: “a friend of mine”, “that car of yours”:
This book is mine.
That music of hers drives me crazy.
1. We use reflexive pronouns with the verbs: amuse, blame, cut, dry, enjoy, hurt, introduce:
Jim prides himself on his cooking.
2. We use reflective pronouns after prepositions:
Look after yourself! Take care of yourself!
3. We don’t use “myself”, etc. after feel, relax, concentrate, wash, dress, shave, behave. But we say: I dried myself.
I got up, washed, shaved and dressed quickly.
But: Wash/dress/shave yourself! – Помойся/оденься/побрейся!
Behave yourself! – Веди себя прилично!
They are used to form special questions.
1. Who refers to human beings, what usually refers to things (it may be applied to people when inquiring about their occupation):
- Who was that? – It was my friend.
- What are you looking for? – I’m looking for a pen.
- What is he? – A painter.
2. Which has a selective meaning («который из»). It may refer to persons or things:
- Which would you prefer? This or that?
Mind the difference:
Who is he? – this question inquires about the name of a person.
What is he? – about the occupation of the person.
Which is he? – about some particular person out of the group.
When used with nouns of material some/any have the meaning of indefinite quantity («некоторое количество», «немного», «сколько-нибудь») but usually they are not translated into Russian:
Give me some water, please. – Дайте мне воды, пожалуйста.
There isn’t any milk in the fridge. – В холодильнике нет молока.
Before countable nouns in the plural some/any are translated as «несколько», «какие-то», «какие-нибудь»:
He asked me some questions. – Он задал мне несколько вопросов.
Have you got any interesting books? – У вас есть какие-нибудь интересные книги?
Basic Uses of “Some” and “Any”
1. Affirmatives: I want some eggs.
2. Questions + “yes”: Do you want some tea?
3. Requests: May I have some tea?
4. (= certain): Some people believe anything. 1. Negatives: I don’t want any eggs.
2. Uncertain questions: Is there any sugar?
3. With “hardly”, etc.: There’s hardly any ink.
4. With “at all”: I haven’t any idea at all.
5. After “if”: Buy some pears if you see any.
We often use some in questions when we expect the answer “yes”:
What’s wrong with your eye? Have you got something in it?
We use some in questions especially when we offer or ask for things:
Would you like some tea?
Can I have some of those apples?
Adjectives are divided into:
Simple Derivative Compound
The degrees of comparison of the adjective are formed with the help of -er, -est or more, most:
hot – hotter – the hottest
large – larger – the largest
narrow – narrower – the narrowest
beautiful – more beautiful – the most beautiful
interesting – more interesting – the most interesting
But we must remember irregular forms:
good – better – the best
bad – worse – the worst
old – older – the oldest / elder – the eldest
far – farther – the farthest / further – the furthest
many – more – the most
much – more – the most
little – less – the least
THE USE OF ADJECTIVES AFTER VERBS
After be/look/feel/seem/smell/taste/sound we use adjectives:
The dinner smells good.
Tom sounded angry.
Your friend seems nice.
After other verbs we use adverbs (badly/well/carefully):
Susan plays tennis well.
John behaved badly last night.
(последний, больше не будет) the latest
(последний на данный момент)
the last page in the book
the last day of November
the last summer show
the last novel she wrote before she died the latest fashion
the latest news
the latest movie
the latest book
(старший по возрасту)
(старейший, самый старый) elder
(старший по рождению: о детях, братьях, сестрах …)
(самый старший, старшенький)
Granny is the oldest member of the family. There are four children in our family. My elder sister is Florence. My elder brother is Nick. John is the eldest child.
В сравнительных конструкциях с than elder не употребляется:
My elder brother is 5 years older than me.
farther – the farthest
further – the furthest
Указание на расстояние:
Vladivostok is farther / further away from Moscow.
My house is the farthest / furthest from the station. Указание на дополнение:
For further information, see Page 2.
Any further questions?
That’s a further reason to do it.
further improvement – дальнейшее улучшение
further education – дальнейшее образование
further notice – дальнейшее уведомление
nearer – the nearest (ближайший, самый близкий)
next (следующий по порядку, соседний)
Where is the nearest post office?
The nearest house to ours is 2 miles away. next
The next train to London is at 10.00.
The telephone was ringing in the next room.
But: in the near future – в ближайшем будущем
next door – по соседству, рядом
next-door – соседний
The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of things in succession.
The numerals fall into two groups: cardinal numerals (cardinals) and ordinal numerals (ordinals).
Cardinals: 0 – zero, 1 – one, 2 – two, 3 – three, 4 – four, etc.
Ordinals: 1st – the first, 2nd – the second, 3rd – the third, 4th – the fourth, 5th – the fifth, 6th – the sixth, 7th – the seventh, 8th – the eighth, 9th – the ninth, etc.
Notes: We write: 3/4/1992 and say: the third of April, nineteen ninety-two; we write: 3 April 1992 and say: April the third, nineteen ninety-two.
(THE VERB ‘TO BE’)
The verb to be has the following Indefinite forms:
1. The Present Indefinite Tense – am, is, are: I am a teacher.
2. The Past Indefinite Tense – was, were: He was in Moscow in 2002.
3. The Future Indefinite Tense – will be: They will be at work at 2.00.
To be to as a modal verb is used in the Present and Past Indefinite tenses. It expresses an obligation arising out of an arrangement or plan. It is found in statements and questions:
1. We are to complete this work by tomorrow.
2. When is the wedding to be?
3. When am I to come?
4. Who is to be the first?
5. I was to meet mother at the dentist’s at 11.
ВВОДНОЕ ‘THERE BE’
(INTRODUCTORY ‘THERE BE’)
Sentences with there express the existence or coming into existence of a person or non-person. As such sentences usually present some new idea the noun expressing it is generally used with the indefinite article:
There is a book on the table.
The notional subject introduced by there can be expressed by
1. any noun or a noun phrase:
There was silence for a moment.
There was a needle and thread in her fingers.
There were a lot of people in the street.
2. a pronoun:
Is there anybody there?
There was nobody in.
There were both of them present.
With there-constructions followed by subjects of different number, the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first:
There was a textbook and many notebooks on the table.
There were many notebooks and a textbook on the table.
(THE VERB ‘TO HAVE’)
The verb to have has the meaning to possess:
I have a car.
I had a car last year.
I will have a car in a year.
In modern English have got is used in the same meaning when the action is expressed by the Present Indefinite Tense.
I have got a car.
In questions and negative sentences to have and have got are used differently:
Do you have any money? – Have you got any money?
How much money do you have? – How much money have you got?
I don’t have any money. – I haven’t got any money.
Have got isn’t possible in the following expressions:
have breakfast / lunch / dinner / a meal / a drink / a cigarette / etc.;
have a swim / a walk / a rest / a holiday / a party / a good time / etc.;
have a bath / a shower / a wash;
have a look (at something);
have a baby (=give birth to a baby);
have a chat (with someone).
The modal verb to have to expresses obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. It corresponds to the Russian приходится, вынужден:
I have to get up at 5.
Nelly doesn’t have to cook herself.
Do we have to return at 6?
Have got to has the same basic meaning as have to. The difference is that have to denotes a habitual action and have got to denotes a particular action:
Do you have to get up early every morning?
Have you got to get up early tomorrow morning?
The adverb tells you how something happens or how somebody does something. In other words it describes how the action is performed:
The train stopped suddenly.
I opened the door slowly.
The adverb is also used to describe an adjective or an other adverb:
Adverbs are normally (but not always) formed by adding -ly to an adjective: polite – politely, bad – badly.
However, some adjectives end in -ly: silly, early.
Some words can be used both as an adjective and an adverb:
fast: a fast car, to drive fast;
hard: a hard task, to work hard;
late: late autumn, to come late;
far: a far country, to leave far to the North;
long: a long walk, to wait long.
Some words change their meaning when we add -ly to them:
hard – трудно, тяжело; hardly – едва;
late – поздно; lately – недавно;
near – рядом; nearly – почти.
The adjectives high, deep, wide are used with -ly in the following: highly-educated, deeply-respected, widely-used, etc.
After the verbs of sense perception the adjective is used:
I feel bad.
It smells nice.
Remember: good is an adjective, well – is an adverb:
Your English is very good.
You speak English well.
But well is used as an adjective in the meaning “to be healthy”:
- Are you sick? – No, I’m well.
The degrees of comparison of the adverb are formed with the help of -er, -est or more, most:
soon – sooner – soonest;
late – later – latest;
loudly – more loudly – most loudly.
Remember: well – better – best
badly – worse – worst
much – more – most
little – less – least
far – farther – farthest
ФОРМЫ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ГЛАГОЛА
(ENGLISH VERBAL FORMS)
У английского глагола четыре основные формы.
I форма – инфинитив (the Infinitive): to write писать.
II форма –прошедшее неопределенное время (The Past Indefinite Tense): wrote – писал(а), worked – работал(а).
III форма – причастие прошедшего времени (Past Participle): written – написанный, translated – переведенный.
IV форма – причастие настоящего времени (Present Participle): writing – пишущий, translating –переводящий.
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
The Present Continuous Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “to be” в настоящем времени (am, are, is) и четвертой формы глагола, т. е. причастия настоящего времени (Present Participle):
They are reading now. Они сейчас читают.
He is reading now. Я сейчас читаю.
В вопросительной форме am, are, is ставятся перед подлежащим:
Are they reading now? Они сейчас читают?
What is he doing now? Что он сейчас делает?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы “not”, которая ставится после am, are или is:
I am not reading now. Я сейчас не читаю.
They aren’t reading now. Они сейчас не читают.
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I am working. We are working.
You are working. You are working.
He is working. They are working.
She is working.
It is working.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I am not working. We are not working.
You are not working. You are not working.
He is not working. They are not working.
She is not working.
It is not working.
*Сокращенные отрицательные формы глаголов: aren’t и isn’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Am I working? Are we working?
Are you working? Are you working?
Is he working? Are they working?
Is she working?
Is it working?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Aren’t I working? Aren’t we working?
Aren’t you working? Aren’t you working?
Isn’t he working? Aren’t they working?
Isn’t she working?
Isn’t it working?
The Present Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения действия, которое совершается в момент речи. Слово “now” и словосочетание “at this moment” – подчеркивают момент речи.
The Present Continuous Tense может также употребляться для выражения будущего действия, которое намечено заранее, запланировано. В этом случае часто употребляются указатели будущего времени:
We are going to the theatre tomorrow.
Завтра мы идем в театр.
John is coming to Moscow next Sunday.
Джон приезжает в Москву в следующее воскресенье.
Запомните: to be going + to Infinitive также выражает будущее подготавливаемое действие:
He is going to marry Lucy.
Он собирается жениться на Люси. Он женится на Люси.
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE)
Настоящее неопределенное время образуется при помощи первой формы глагола (инфинитива) без частицы to:
They want to go to the cinema.
We learn English.
В 3-ем лице единственном числе к основе глагола прибавляется окончание "s" или "es":
He reads books every day.
Peter gets up at 7 o'clock every morning.
Вопросительная форма настоящего неопределенного времени образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола "do" ("does" для 3-го лица единственного числа) и инфинитива без "to".
В вопросительной форме do (does) ставится перед подлежащим:
Do you learn English?
Does he speak English?
Отрицательная форма настоящего неопределенного времени образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола do (does), отрицательной частицы "not" и инфинитива без частицы to:
I do not (don't) write letters every day. He doesn't live in Moscow.
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I work. We work.
You work. You work.
He works. They work.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I do not work. We do not work.
You do not work. You do not work.
He does not work. They do not work.
She does not work.
It does not work.
*Сокращенные отрицательные формы глаголов: don’t и doesn’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Do I work? Do we work?
Do you work? Do you work?
Does he work? Do they work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Don’t I work? Don’t we work?
Don’t you work? Don’t you work?
Doesn’t he work? Don’t they work?
Doesn’t she work?
Doesn’t it work?
Настоящее неопределенное время употребляется для выражения действия, которое происходит в настоящем времени вообще, а не в момент речи.
С настоящим неопределенным временем часто употребляются такие слова, как: always “всегда”, usually “обычно”, often “часто”, sometimes “иногда”, а также такие словосочетания, как:
every day каждый день;
every morning (evening) каждое утро (вечер);
every week каждую неделю;
in the morning (in the evening) утром (вечером);
in the afternoon днем.
He usually writes letters in the evening.
Он обычно пишет письма вечером.
We often come here.
Мы часто приходим сюда.
В общих вопросах с глаголом в настоящем неопределенном времени вспомогательный глагол "do (does)" выносится на первое место в предложении:
Do you learn French?
Вы изучаете французский язык?
Does he learn French?
Он изучает французский? (Изучает ли он французский?)
Краткий ответ состоит из Yes (да) или No (нет), подлежащего, выраженного местоимением, и формы вспомогательного глагола "do (does)", употребленной в вопросе:
Do you go to school every day?
– Yes, I do.
Does he go to school every day?
– Yes, he does.
Does Mary go to school every day?
– No, she does not (doesn't).
Do they go to school every day?
– No, they do not (don't).
Специальные вопросы относятся к отдельным членам предложения и задаются, когда интересуются подробностями. Вопросительные слова:
What? Что? Какой?
Where? Где? Куда?
Специальные вопросы с глаголом “to be” в настоящем неопределенном времени:
Whose pen is it? Чья это ручка?
What book is it? Какая это книга?
Where is Peter? Где Петр?
Специальные вопросы с глаголом в настоящем неопределенном времени:
When do you usually get up?
Когда вы (ты) обычно встаете (встаешь)?
When does he usually get up?
Когда он обычно встает?
What books do they like?
Какие книги им нравятся?
What books does she like?
Какие книги ей нравятся?
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE)
Настоящее совершенное время образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have (has для 3-го лица единственного числа) и Past Participle смыслового глагола (т.е. третьей формы глагола):
I have seen this film.
Я посмотрел этот фильм.
He has written the letter.
Он написал письмо.
В вопросительной форме глагол have (has) ставится перед подлежащим:
Have you seen this film? (общий вопрос)
What has he written? (специальный вопрос)
В отрицательной форме после глагола have (has) ставится отрицательная частица "not":
He has not (hasn't) seen this film.
Он не видел этого фильма.
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I have worked. We have worked.
You have worked. You have worked.
He has worked. They have worked.
She has worked.
It has worked.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I have not worked. We have not worked.
You have not worked. You have not worked.
He has not worked. They have not worked.
She has not worked.
It has not worked.
Сокращенная отрицательная форма глаголов: haven’t и hasn’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Have I worked? Have we worked?
Have you worked? Have you worked?
Has he worked? Have they worked?
Has she worked?
Has it worked?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Haven’t I worked? Haven’t we worked?
Haven’t you worked? Haven’t you worked?
Hasn’t he worked? Haven’t they worked?
Hasn’t she worked?
Hasn’t it worked?
The Present Perfect Tense употребляется:
а) для выражения действия, которое совершилось в прошлом, но результат которого есть в настоящем времени:
He has written a book. Он написал книгу.
(Результат в настоящем времени – вот эта книга, можете прочитать ее.)
Peter has red the book. Петр прочитал книгу.
(Результат в настоящем времени – Петр знает содержание книги.)
Present Perfect обычно употребляется без указателей времени, так как нас интересует результат прошедшего действия в настоящем, а не время совершения действия:
Mary has made two mistakes in her test. Мэри сделала две ошибки в контрольной работе.
(Результат в настоящем времени – в контрольной работе есть две ошибки).
б) Present Perfect обычно употребляется с такими словами, как ever – когда-либо, never – никогда, already – уже, just –только что.
I have just seen him. Я только что его видел.
в) Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом, но еще не закончилось. В этом случае Present Perfect переводится на русский язык настоящим временем, и в предложении очень часто употребляется слово "since", которое указывает на начало действия в прошлом или предлог for (в течение), которое указывает на период продолжения действия:
Peter has lived in St. Petersburg since 1998.
Петр живет в Санкт-Петербурге с 1998 года.
Present Perfect НЕ употребляется:
а) если дано точное указание времени в прошлом: yesterday, last week, 10 years ago, in 2000 и т. д. В таких случаях употребляется Past Indefinite:
I saw Ann yesterday.
We went to the theatre last week.
б) Present Perfect никогда не употребляется в вопросительном предложении, которое начинается с вопросительного слова ‘when’:
When were you in St. Petersburg?
When did they come to her place?
ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Формы The Past Continuous Tense образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола “to be” в форме прошедшего времени (was в ед. ч. и were во мн. ч.) и причастия настоящего времени смыслового глагола.
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I was working. We were working.
You were working. You were working.
He was working . They were working.
She was working.
It was working.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I was not working. We were not working.
You were not working. You were not working.
He was not working. They were not working.
She was not working.
It was not working.
Сокращенные отрицательные формы глаголов: wasn’t и weren’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Was I working? Were we working?
Were you working? Were you working?
Was he working? Were they working?
Was she working?
Was it working?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Wasn’t I working? Weren’t we working?
Weren’t you working? Weren’t you working?
Wasn’t he working? Weren’t they working?
Wasn’t she working?
Wasn’t it working?
The Past Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения развертывающегося действия, проходившего в какой-то данный момент в прошлом. Этот момент в прошлом может быть обозначен:
а) точным указанием момента времени: at that moment в тот момент, at that time в то время, at 6 o’clock yesterday вчера в 7 часов и т.п.
At that time our troops were crossing the bridge.
В то время наши войска переходили мост.
б) Другим однократным действием, выраженным глаголом в Past Indefinite:
When I went out the fog was rising in little clouds to the sky above.
Когда я вышел, туман клубами поднимался к небу.
Past Continuous может употребляться как в главном, так и в придаточном предложении:
I came in when he was reading.
Я вошел, когда он читал.
When I came in he was reading.
Когда я вошел, он читал.
Past Continuous встречается при одновременности двух действий, происходивших в прошлом. Оба глагола, выражающие эти действия, могут быть употреблены в Past Continuous или в Past Indefinite. При употреблении Past Continuous подчеркивается процесс протекания действия, при употреблении Past Indefinite констатируется факт совершения действия:
An enormous hound was passing at the end of the alley while we were standing at the door of the house.
Огромная собака проходила в конце аллеи, в то время как мы стояли у дверей дома.
His family stayed in New York while Erik took his examinations.
Его семья жила в Нью-Йорке, пока Эрик сдавал экзамены.
Past Continuous употребляется для эмоционального подчеркивания длительности действия с такими обозначениями времени, как all day весь день, all the time все время, the whole morning все утро, from 5 till 7 с 5 часов до 7, for years (months) в течение ... лет (месяцев) и т. д.:
It was raining the whole day yesterday.
Вчера весь день шел дождь.
They were working at the laboratory from 10 till 12.
Они работали в лаборатории с 10 до 12.
ПРОШЕДШЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE)
По способу образования прошедшего неопределенного времени английские глаголы делятся на правильные и неправильные.
Правильные глаголы образуют The Past Indefinite Tense при помощи прибавления во всех лицах окончание “ed” к инфинитиву без частицы “to”.
I worked. Я работал(а).
They asked me about it. Они спросили меня об этом.
Неправильные глаголы образуют The Past Indefinite Tense другими способами, эти формы нужно запоминать.
He took. Он взял.
They knew. Они знали.
Вопросительная форма The Past Indefinite Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “did” и инфинитива без частицы “to”.
Вспомогательный глагол did ставится перед подлежащим.
Where did you see him yesterday? Где вы его вчера видели?
Did you see him yesterday? Вы его видели вчера?
Отрицательная форма The Past Indefinite Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “did”, отрицательной частицы “not” и инфинитива без частицы “to”.
I didn’t know. Я не знал(а).
They didn’t know. Они не знали.
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I worked. We worked.
You worked. You worked.
He worked . They worked.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I did not work. We did not work.
You did not work. You did not work.
He did not work . They did not work.
She did not work.
It did not work.
Сокращенная отрицательная форма глаголов: didn’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Did I work? Did we work?
Did you work? Did you work?
Did he work? Did they work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Didn’t I work? Didn’t we work?
Didn’t you work? Didn’t you work?
Didn’t he work? Didn’t they work?
Didn’t she work?
Didn’t it work?
The Past Indefinite Tense употребляется для выражения действия, которое имело место в прошлом. С Past Indefinite часто употребляются такие указатели времени, как: yesterday вчера, last week на прошлой неделе, last month в прошлом месяце, last year в прошлом году, in 1999 в 1999 году, some years ago несколько лет назад:
I saw him last week. Я видел его на прошлой неделе.
She began to read the book yesterday.
Она начала читать книгу вчера.
БУДУЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE)
The Future Continuous Tense образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола “to be” в форме будущего времени (shall be и will be) и причастия настоящего времени смыслового глагола.
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I shall/will be working. We shall/will be working.
You will be working. You will be working.
He will be working. They will be working.
She will be working.
It will be working.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I shall/will not be working. We shall/will not be working.
You will not be working. You will not be working.
He will not be working. They will not be working.
She will not be working.
It will not be working.
Сокращенные отрицательные формы глаголов: shan’t и won’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Shall/will I be working? Shall/will we be working?
Will you be working? Will you be working?
Will he be working? Will they be working?
Will she be working?
Will it be working?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Shan’t/won’t I be working? Shan’t/won’t we be working?
Won’t you be working? Won’t you be working?
Won’t he be working? Won’t they be working?
Won’t she be working?
Won’t it be working?
Future Continuous употребляется для выражения развертывающегося действия, которое будет происходить в какой-то момент в будущем. Этот момент может быть обозначен:
а) Точным указанием момента времени at that moment в тот момент, at that time в то время, at 10 o’clock tomorrow завтра в 10 часов и т. п.
He will be working in the garden at that time tomorrow.
Завтра в это время он будет работать в саду.
б) Другим однократным действием, выраженным глаголом в Present Indefinite:
When he turns east the police will be searching the other area.
Когда он повернет на восток, полиция будет обыскивать другой район.
Future Continuous употребляется для эмоционального подчеркивания длительности действия с такими обозначениями времени, как all day tomorrow весь день завтра, all the time все время, the whole morning все утро, from 5 till 7 с 5 часов до 7, during (for) the next years (months) в течение ... последующих лет (месяцев) и т. д.:
They will be reading all day tomorrow.
Они будут читать завтра весь день.
БУДУЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE)
Будущее неопределенное время (The Future Indefinite Tense) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “shа11” (для 1-го лица единственного и множественного числа) и “wi11” (для всех остальных лиц) и неопределенной формы смыслового глагола без частицы “to”:
He will ring you up at 10 o’clock in the morning.
Он позвонит тебе (вам) в 10 часов утра.
I shall help you to do it. Я помогу тебе (вам) это сделать.
В современном английском языке c “I” и “we” употребляется вспомогательный глагол “wi11”:
I will have coffee. Я выпью кофе.
We will tell you the truth. Мы вам скажем правду.
В вопросительных предложениях shall/will ставится перед подлежащим.
When will you write the letter? Когда ты напишешь письмо?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы “not”, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола:
I will not phone Peter. Я не позвоню Петру.
They will not understand me. Они меня не поймут.
В разговорной речи используются сокращенные формы:
I will – I’ll
Shall not – shan’t
Will not – won’t
Утвердительная форма предложений:
I shall/will work . We shall/will work.
You will work. You will work.
He will work. They will work.
She will work.
It will work.
Отрицательная форма предложений:
I shall/will not work. We shall/will not work.
You will not work. You will not work.
He will not work. They will not work.
She will not work.
It will not work.
Сокращенные отрицательные формы глаголов: shan’t и won’t.
Вопросительная форма предложений:
Shall/will I work? Shall/will we work?
Will you work? Will you work?
Will he work? Will they work?
Will she work?
Will it work?
Вопросительно-отрицательная форма предложений:
Shan’t/won’t I work? Shan’t/won’t we work?
Won’t you work? Won’t you work?
Won’t he work? Won’t they work?
Won’t she work?
Won’t it work?
Future Indefinite употребляется для выражения действия, которое совершится в будущем.
I won’t read his letter.
Я не буду читать его письмо.
We won’t see him again.
Мы больше его не увидим.
В сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточным условия (вводится союзами if если, unless если не, in case в случае, on condition that при условии) и времени (вводится союзами when когда, until пока не, as soon as как только) глагол употребляется только в настоящем времени.
I shall help you if I have some spare time.
Я помогу тебе, если у меня будет свободное время.
As soon as you finish working ring me up.
Как только ты закончишь работать, позвони мне.
PART III. GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Упражнение I. Прочитайте и объясните использование артиклей или их отсутствие.
1. Have you got a museum in you town? 2. That’s the hospital where his mother works. 3. Take number three bus. 4. There are no books for physical training lessons. 5. It’s a good thing to have a big sister. 6. During the long break we can go to the dining-room. 7. Have you got any brothers or sisters?
Упражнение II. Вставьте неопределенный артикль там, где это необходимо.
1. Take … cup of … coffee, please. 2. There is … hot and cold water, and … gas in this new block of flats. 3. The raincoat is made of … nylon. 4. I am reading … interesting book about cosmonauts. 5. There is … bathroom opposite the hall. 6. He has … bread and … butter, and … glass of … tea for breakfast. 7. There is … jacket made of … nylon hanging on the hall-stand. 8. Do you want to drink … cup of … tea? 9. Do you like … rain? 10. Is there … balcony in your flat? 11. They have … cow and … big pig. 12. You can see a lot of … paper in the boxes on the desk. 13. Will you give me … kilo and a half of … sweets? 14. In the shop window you can see … coats, … suits, … shoes and other things. 15. There are fifty-two weeks in … year. 16. What … nice day it is! 16. He can spend … month or two at the seaside. 17. Take … shopping-bag for the things you must buy. 18. We have enough … cheese and … sweets. 19. How much …money have you got? 20. We saw … fruit and vegetables, … meat and … fish and … butter and other things at the market.
Упражнение III. Вставьте артикли там, где это необходимо.
1. Go along … street and on … right you can see … theatre. 2. There are … shops and … new hotel near … square. 3. How can I get to … post-office, please? 4. In … café I had … cup of … coffee and … bread and … butter. 5. … tea is not very hot. 6. Take … duster and clean … blackboard! 7. This is … bench on which I like to sit. 8. … teacher is going to give you … good mark. 9. There are … lots of … parks and … gardens in our town. 10. … club is in … centre of … village. 11. … name of … farm is “Pobeda”. 12. I have got … interesting book for you. 13. … Volga is … longest river in … European part of … Russia. 14. There is … park not far from our … house. … park is … largest in our city. 15. My … brother is … pupil of … 8th form and he wants to become … engineer. 16. Chemistry was my … favourite subject at school. 17. Here is … book you need. 18. I go to … bed at midnight. 19. I usually drink … tea with … sugar for … breakfast. 20. Will you have … cup of … tea? 21. Pass me … milk, please. 22. What … nice day! What … fine weather! 23. … London is situated on … Thames. 24. Do you want to watch … television this evening? 25. I wrote my name at … top of the page. 26. … moon goes round … earth every 27 days. 27. Did you see the film on … television or at … cinema? 28. Tim lives in … small village in … country. 29. Peru is … country in … South America. … capital is … Lima. 30. It was … beautiful day. … sun shone brightly in … sky. 31. I’ve invited Tom to … dinner next Wednesday. 32. Life is not easy for … poor.
Упражнение IV. Составьте предложения, употребляя подходящий артикль.
1. Mary / play / piano very well. 2. Jack / play /guitar very badly. 3. Jill / play / violin in an orchestra. 4. I’d like / learn / play / piano. 5. you / play / guitar?
Упражнение V. Выберите правильную форму.
1. Apples/The apples are good for you. 2. Look at apples/the apples on that tree! They’re very large. 3. Women/The women are often better teachers than men/the men. 4. In Britain coffee/the coffee is more expensive than tea/the tea. 5. We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. Cheese/The cheese was especially good. 6. Life/The life would be very difficult without electricity/the electricity. 7. Do you know people/the people who live next door? 8. Are you interested in art/the art or architecture/the architecture? 9. Some children hate school/the school. 10. What time do your children finish school/the school? 11. Nora worked as a cleaner in hospital/at the hospital. 12. My brother is very ill, he is in hospital/the hospital. 13. After work/the work, Ann usually goes home. 14 I like to read in bed/the bed before going to sleep.
Упражнение VI. Исправьте ошибки, где это необходимо.
1. Last year we visited Canada and Unites States. 2. Africa is much larger than Europe. 3. South of England is warmer than north. 4. We went to Spain for our holidays and swam in Mediterranean. 5. Tom has visited most countries in Western Europe. 6. A friend of mine worked as a reporter in Middle East. 7. Nile is the longest river in Africa. 8. Next year we are going to ski in the Swiss Alps. 9. Malta has been a republic since 1974. 10. United kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Упражнение VII. Вставьте артикли там, где это необходимо.
1. … Andes; 2. … Baikal; 3. … Arctic Ocean; 4. … Caucasus; 5. … Crimea; 6. … Everest; 7. … Hague; 8. … Hudson Bay; 9. …Lenin Peak; 10. … Netherlands; 11. … Panama Canal; 12. … Sahara; 13. … Antarctic Continent; 14. … Asia; 15. … Belgium; 16. … Central America; 17. … Dublin; 18. … Gibraltar; 19. … Havana; 20. … Kalahari Desert; 21. … Maldives; 22. … North Pole; 23. … Persian Gulf; 24. … Sakhalin; 25. … Antilles; 26. … Bahamas; 27. … Bay of Bengal; 28. … Corsica; 29. … English Channel; 30. … Great Bear Lake; 31. … Hawaiian Isles; 32. … Ladoga; 33. … New Zealand; 34. … Pacific Ocean; 35. … Urals; 36. … Philippines.
Упражнение VIII. Ответьте на вопросы, употребляя подходящий артикль.
1. Where is Bolivia? (Africa / South America / North America) 2. Where is Ethiopia? (Asia / South America / Africa) 3. Of which country is Manila the capital? (Indonesia / Philippines / Japan) 4. Of which country is Stockholm the capital? (Norway / Denmark / Sweden) 5. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia? (Atlantic / Pacific / Indian Ocean) 6. Which country lies between Mexico and Canada? (Venezuela / Brasilia / Unites States) 7. Which is the largest continent? (Africa / South America / Asia) 8. What is the name of the sea between England and France? (Mediterranean Sea / English Channel / French Sea) 9. What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe? (Black Sea / Red Sea / Mediterranean Sea)
Упражнение IX. Прочитайте тексты и заполните пропуски артиклями там, где это необходимо.
A) In … 16th century … Stratford-upon-Avon was … commercial town surrounded by … rich farmland. Its markets attracted people from miles around.
… names of some streets tell us today what was made or sold in these streets, for example … Sheep Street or … Wood Street.
John Shakespeare was … son of … farmer who came to Stratford to find his fortune. He became … glove maker. With … money he made, he bought … house in … Henley Street. He also married well. Mary Arden came from … rather rich family.
In April 1564, Mary and John had … son – William. … exact date of his birth is not known, but many people believe that it was … 23rd of April. Today Shakespeare’s birthday is marked with … parade through … Stratford in which people from all over … world take part.
B) Mr and Mrs Forrester have … son and … daughter. … son lives at … home and … daughter is … student at … University. Mr Forrester is … journalist. He works for … Times. He writes … articles about … restaurants. “I love … food!” he says.
C) Every spring our children go skiing, so my wife and I go to Paris on … holiday. We stay in … hotel near … River Seine. We have … breakfast in … hotel, but we have … lunch in a restaurant. … French food is delicious! We walk a lot, but sometimes we go by taxi. After four days we don’t want to go … home and go back to … work.
Упражнение X. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Осень – дождливый сезон. 2. Вода и воздух необходимы для жизни. 3. Вечером я пью чай или молоко, но не кофе. 4. Молоко слишком холодное, не пей его. 5. Он попросил стакан воды. 6. Ивановы уехали отдыхать на юг. 7. Было холодное зимнее утро. 8. Сегодня ветреный вечер. 9. Утро будет морозным. 10. День был очень жарким. 11. Этот дом сделан из дерева. 12. В хороших библиотеках всегда есть много детских книг. 13. Я знаю мужчину, который живет в этом доме. 14. Какая интересная газета! 15. Надень чистую рубашку!
Упражнение I. Замените существительные соответствующими личными местоимениями.
1. At Christmas … (friend) often give Mary presents. 2. … (Mary) likes her friends. 3. … (the bird) is singing lovely. 4. … (my sister and I) don’t like to walk our dog. 5. … (the boy) overslept this morning and didn’t have time to have breakfast. 6. … (Dad and Mom) went to see their friends. 7. … (your brother and you) spend too much time playing football. 8. … (you and I) are good friends, aren’t …?
Упражнение II. Заполните пропуски личными местоимениями.
1. Your parcel has arrived. … was delivered this morning. 2. Jane and I have already eaten. … had a meal before we left home. 3. Who’s that? – … is my mother. Would you like to meet her? 4. Who’s Jane Wilson? – … is the woman who’s just started working for our company. 5. So you’ve had a baby! Is … a boy or a girl? 6. When John comes in, please tell … I phoned. 7. If you see Catherine, please give … my regards. 8. Jack and Mary are married. … have been married since August. 9. I was not at the party. You couldn’t see … . 10. Do you know that man? – Yes, I work with … . 11. I’m talking to you. Please listen to … . 12. I like that camera. I’m going to buy … . 13. Where are the tickets? I can’t find … . 14. We’re going out. You can come with … . 15. I don’t like dogs. I’m afraid of … . 16. Those apples are bad. Don’t eat … .
Упражнение III. Употребите притяжательные местоимения.
1. Sally is married. … husband works in a bank. 2. I like … job. 3. Do you like … job? 4. Does you father like … job? 5. I know Mr Watson but I don’t know … wife. 6. They live with … parents. 7. … favourite sport is tennis. I play a lot in summer. 8. We’re staying at a very nice hotel. … room is very comfortable. 9. Mr and Mrs Baker live in London but … son lives in Australia. 10. Thank you for … letter. It was good to hear from you again. 11. John is a teacher but … sister is a nurse. 12. I often see that man but I don’t know … name. 13. The company has offices in many places but … head office is in New York.
Упражнение IV. Вставьте mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
1. That is our classroom. That classroom is … .2. This is your ice cream. This ice cream is … .3. That is the ninth form’s basketball team. This team is … . 4. This is my sister’s money. This money is … . 5. These are my birthday presents. Those birthday presents are … . 6. This is my father’s present. That present is … .
Упражнение V. Выберите правильное местоимение.
1. … farm is as rich as … (our, ours, their, theirs). 2. … hair is as dark as … (hers, her, my, mine). 3. … aunt lives in … town (mine, my, ours, our). What about …(your, yours)? 4. Shall we take … (yours, your) sister with us? 5. Is that ticket … or … (mine, my, hers, her)? 6. That house is … (their, theirs).
Упражнение VI. Употребите притяжательные местоимения или их абсолютную форму.
1. What a beautiful baby girl! What’s … name? 2. This is your towel: yours is yellow. And that’s your husband’s. … is blue. 3. This car isn’t … . My car has a different registration number. 4. “Shall we have … supper on a tray and watch TV?” my wife asked. 5. That umbrella doesn’t belong to you. … is the one with the leather handle. 6. Their flat and our flat seem to be the same, but … is different from ours. 7. John’s son wants to be an actor and … daughter wants to be an actress. 8. Patricia’s eldest daughter has just left school and … youngest has just begun. 9. Has the cat been given … milk yet?
Упражнение VII. Выберите правильное местоимение.
1. … don’t think … can finish … work at 7 o’clock. (I, my, mine) 2. Did … parents know about the meeting? (you, your, yours) 3. … likes … cup of coffee in the morning, doesn’t …? (he, his) 4. The mistake is … (I, my, mine). 5. … say … want to play football. (they, their, theirs) 6. This is … family. (we, our, ours)
Упражнение VIII. Ответьте на вопросы, употребляя абсолютную форму притяжательных местоимений.
1. My eyes are grey. What colour are your eyes? 2. My clothes are in the wardrobe. Where are your clothes? 3. My parents are young. Are your friend’s parents young? 4. Our English teacher is a woman. What about your teacher? 5. Our room is number 12. What number is the room of the next class? 6. Your hat is big. My hat is smaller. What is my hat like? 7. Whose hair is darker, yours or your mother’s? 8. Whose family is bigger, yours or your friend’s? 9. What colour are you eyes? And your father’s? 10. Dubna is not a very big town. What about the town where you and your family live?
Упражнение IX. Закончите предложения фразой a friend of mine/yours, etc.
1. I went to the cinema with … . 2. They went on holiday with some … . 3. She’s going out with a … . 4. We had dinner with some … . 5. I played tennis with a … . 6. He’s going to meet a … . 7. Do you know that man? Is he a … .
Упражнение X. Прочитайте и переведите предложения.
1. There is some milk in the bottle. 2. There are not any books on the desk. 3. There are some books on the shelf. 4. Are there any books on the shelf? 5. There are no books on the table. 6. What is there on the shelf? 7. Is there any milk in the bottle? 8. There isn’t any milk in the glass. 9. There is no milk in the glass.
Упражнение XI. Вставьте some/any, где необходимо.
1. There are … newspapers on the table near the TV set. 2. There isn’t … bread on the table. 3. She has … toys in the corner of the room. 4. Is there … chalk, children? 5. Are there … pictures in this book? 6. There are … arm-chairs round the table. 7. There are … sheep in the farm yard. 8. They didn’t pick … flowers. 9. Ann has bought … new shoes. 10. Can I have … milk in my coffee, please? 11. I haven’t read … of these books but Tom has read … of them. 12. Would you like … more coffee? 13. Can you give me … information about places to see in this town? 14. With this special tourist bus ticket you can go on … bus you like. 15. I’m going to buy … eggs. 16. They didn’t make … mistakes. 17. I can pay. I’ve got … money.
Упражнение XII. Вставьте no или any.
Example: There aren’t any good hotels here.
There are no buses today.
1. I didn’t write … letters last night. 2. There are … shops in this part of the town. 3. She can’t speak … foreign languages. 4. Don’t buy … food. We don’t need … . 5. I’m afraid there’s … coffee. Would you like … tea? 6. My brother is married but he’s got … children. 7. “Look at those birds!” – “Birds? Where? I can’t see … birds.” 8. The man asked me for money but I didn’t give him … . 9. I’m not going to do … work this evening. 10. I didn’t smoke … cigarettes yesterday. 11. They want to go on holiday but they’ve got … money. 12. It’s a nice hotel but there’s … swimming pool. 13. I’m not going to answer … questions. 14. He’s always alone. He’s got … friends. 15. There is … difference between these two machines. They are the same. 16. I can’t take … photographs. There’s … film in the camera. 17. There wasn’t … furniture in the room. It was completely empty.
Упражнение XIII. Вставьте something, anything, nothing, somebody, anybody, nobody.
1. Have you got … to drink? 2. No, I have got … . 3. He is reading … very interesting in the newspaper. 4. Everybody is present. … is absent. 5. Has … seen my little brother here? 6. He sent a letter to … in Omsk. 7. I do not know … about how to grow vegetables in the kitchen garden. 8. Did you meet … on the way to the farm? 9. There was … on the pig-farm, they were all at the meeting. 10. There was … wrong with the tractor. 11. It’s too late, there is … in the office. 12. Does … mind if I smoke? 13. Would you like … to eat? 14. The prisoners refused to eat … . 15. There’s … at the door. Can you go and see who it is? 16. Why are you looking under the bed? Have you lost …? 17. She said … but I didn’t understand. 18. Do you know … about politics? 19. I went to the shop but I didn’t buy … . 20. I’m looking for my keys. Has … seen them?
Упражнение XIV. Употребите возвратные местоимения.
1. Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don’t burn … . 2. They couldn’t get back into the house. They had locked … out. 3. It isn’t her fault. She really shouldn’t blame … . 4. What a stupid fool I am! I could hurt … . 5. The boy was lucky when he fell down the stairs. He didn’t hurt … . 6. He spends most of his time alone, so it’s not surprising that he talks to … . 7. Don’t worry about us. We can look after … . 8. She felt so unhappy that she threw … on the bed and cried. 9. Look at … in the mirror: your face is all dirty. 10. After the shower he dried … on a big and soft towel. 11. It was a wonderful day and we really enjoyed … . 12. It was a new place and soon we understood that we have lost … . 13. I know that I’ll never let ... ask such a question. 14. The boy threw … upon his knees in front of the king.
Упражнение XV. Употребите myself, где необходимо.
1. Tom is growing a beard because he doesn’t shave. 2. I really feel well today – much better than yesterday. 3. He climbed out of the pool, picked up a towel and dried. 4. I tried to study but I just couldn’t concentrate. 5. Jack and I first met at a party 5 years ago. 6. It was a lovely holiday. We really enjoyed very much. 7. I overslept this morning. I didn’t have time to wash or have breakfast. 8. You’re always rushing about. Why don’t you relax?
Упражнение XVI. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Помогите нам, пожалуйста. 2. Я знаю его и его брата. Мы вместе учились в школе. 3. Он всегда готовит завтрак сам. 4. Как всегда, он ждал ее у аптеки, а она искала его у кинотеатра. 5. Она ничего не ответила. 6. Чтобы купить картон и бумагу, мы пошли в магазин «Сделай это сам» (DIY). 6. Он так устал, что бросился на землю и тут же заснул. 7. Уверен, что на концерте вы получите огромное удовольствие. 8. Они никогда не позволяют себе опаздывать на уроки. 9. Смотри, не заблудись, когда будешь идти через лес. 10. Она посмотрела на себя в зеркало и улыбнулась. 11. Ты такой мокрый! Возьми полотенце и вытрись поскорее. 12. Не беспокойся. Я все сделаю сам. 13. Мне жарко. 14. Вы сообщили им эту новость? 15. Это не моя комната. У меня нет своей. 16. Их коттедж не кирпичный, их – деревянный. 17. Отправь ее в ее комнату. 18. Им хочется побывать в Париже. 19. Расскажите мне о Лондоне. 20. Это не ее ключ, а его.
Упражнение I. Образуйте степени сравнения.
1. Low, hard, busy, happy, warm, bright, cold, heavy, large, big, short, clear, new, fine, nice, hot, great, cool, early, light.
2. Comfortable, important, famous, popular, talented, careful, attentive, pleasant, necessary.
3. Bad, strong, useful, impressive, good, far, high, many, few, little, much, late, old.
Упражнение II. Переведите предложения.
A. 1. He is brighter than his brother. 2. She is taller than her sister. 3. The kitten is grayer than the puppy. 4. His eyes are blacker than coal. 5. Her forehead is whiter than snow.
B. 1. This box is heavier than that one. 2. This house is higher than that one. 3. This boy is cleverer than that one. 4. This road is longer than that one. 5. My old dress is lovelier than the new one.
C. 1. My health is worse than his. 2. Your face is paler than hers. 3. His flat is larger than ours. 4. Her coat is warmer than mine. 5. Our river is deeper than theirs. 6. My son is smaller than hers. 7. This room is colder than ours. 8. His hair is blacker than mine. 9. Your task is easier than his. 10. My glass is fuller than yours. 11. His voice is deeper than yours.
D. 1. Their flat is larger than their mother’s. 2. Their library is richer than their parents’. 3. Our task is easier than our friend’s. 4. His feet are larger than his father’s. 5. Her children are younger than her sister’s. 6. His garden is more beautiful than his neighbour’s. 7. Your story is more wonderful than your brother’s. 8. My flat is more comfortable than my father’s.
Упражнение III. Переведите предложения.
A. 1. Her answer is the best. 2. This apple is the sweetest. 3. My bag is the heaviest. 4. This flat is the largest. 5. His room is the warmest. 6. This road is the dirtiest.
B. 1. This is the best answer of all. 2. She is the prettiest girl of the group. 3. He is the best friend of mine. 4. She is the most stupid of our girls. 5. He is the most famous of our writers. 6. He is the most outstanding of our poets.
C. 1. This is the shortest way to the tram-stop. 2. This poem is the longest in the Reader. 3. This story is the most interesting in the book.
Упражнение IV. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Is Tomsk bigger than St. Petersburg? 2. Are the days shorter than the nights in winter? 3. What are the most beautiful cities in Russia? 4. The sun is hot in June. In what month is it hotter? 5. Is your friend younger than you? 6. Is the weather today better or worse than yesterday? 7. Which is the most beautiful season in your place? 8. Which is more interesting, to go to the cinema or to watch a new film on TV? 9. Which is the coldest month in the year?
Упражнение V. Употребите прилагательные в скобках в правильной форме.
1. Health is (good) than wealth. 2. In winter the days are (short) than in autumn. 3. The Caucasus are (high) mountains in Europe. 4. Where is it (beautiful), in the mountains or near the sea? 5. It isn’t so (warm) today as it was yesterday. Today is much (cold). 6. Novosibirsk is (large) than Omsk. 7. Friendship is (strong) than steel. 8. My friend’s car is not so (fancy) as mine. My car is (fancy) in our neighbourhood. 9. (long) day has an end. 10. Winter is (cold) season. 11. Which do you think is the (beautiful) building in Moscow? 12. Autumn is the (bad) season of the year. 13. Is history (difficult) than botany? 14. Which is the (large) city in Russia? 15. This exercise is (difficult) than the next one. 16. Ivanov is the (good) pupil in our class. 17. Literature is the (interesting) subject for me. 18. Are there (many) than 20 pupils in your class or (few)?
Упражнение VI. Употребите прилагательные в правильной форме.
The Americans are very (proud) of their country. They say that in the USA the buildings are (tall), the cigars are (long), the cars are (big), and the girls are (pretty) than anywhere in the world. The English don’t always agree. Some say the Americans are (loud), (rich) and (noisy) than any other nationality. Other British people think there are lots of (good) things about the USA like Hollywood, jazz and Superman.
It is true that most American skyscrapers are (tall) than buildings in the UK, but the British think their stately homes are (old) and (beautiful) than anything in the USA. The Americans love coke and hamburgers – people in the UK think British food is much (healthy). Clothes are (cheap) in the USA, but fashion design in the UK is (good) than design in the USA.
Упражнение VII. Выберите правильную форму прилагательного.
1. Who is the (oldest, eldest) in the class? 2. Your driving is (worse, worst) than mine. 3. Have you heard the (last, latest) news? 4. Jane Somers writes (good, well). 5. My flat is (littler, smaller) than yours. 6. Jane is (older, elder) than I am. 7. This is the (most, more) expensive. 8. It’s the (better, best) in the shop. 9. I’ve got the (least, less). 10. You’ve got the (more, most).
Упражнение VIII. Переведите предложения.
1. Ее комната больше моей. 2. Эта книга интереснее той. 3. Она красивее ее сестры. 4. Это озеро глубже, чем то. 5. Наш лес гуще, чем их. 6. Ее ответ лучше, чем мой. 7. Ее платье длиннее твоего. 8. Эта аудитория меньше нашей. 9. Сегодня теплее, чем вчера. 10. Январь – самый холодный месяц в году. 11. Июль – самый жаркий месяц. 12. Он самый прилежный ученик в классе. 13. Мой чемодан легче твоего. 14. Он ленивее твоего брата. 15. Она умнее своей сестры. 16. У нее более темные волосы, чем у ее брата. 17. Эти книги труднее тех. 18. Их ответы лучшие в группе. 19. Этот диктант труднее того. 20. Нынешнее лето самое сухое.
Упражнение IX. Прочитайте и переведите данные словосочетания.
As white as snow; as bright as fire; as cold as ice; as strong as steel; as light as air; as thin as paper; as sweet as music; as green as grass; as blue as the sky; as hot as the sun; as pale as the moon; as brave as a lion; as true as a dog; as quick as a cat; as free as a bird; as busy as a bee; as pretty as a kitten; as clumsy as a puppy.
Упражнение X. Прочитайте и переведите данные предложения.
1. He is as clever as his brother. 2. The sun is as hot as fire. 3. She is as pretty as her cousin. 4. He is as brave as a lion. 5. The sea is as blue as the sky. 6. Her face is as pale as the moon. 7. My friend is as witty as his brother. 8. The film is as interesting as the book.
Упражнение XI. Переведите предложения.
1. Он такой же способный, как его брат. 2. Она такая же хорошенькая, как ее сестра. 3. Их сын такой же умный, как их дочь. 4. Их дети такие же веселые, как их родители. 5. Вечер такой же сырой, как утро. 6. Ночь такая же теплая, как день. 7. Она такая же высокая, как и брат. 8. Он такой же смелый, как его брат. 9. Он такой же маленький, как его сестра. 10. День такой же ясный, как утро.
Упражнение XII. Составьте предложения.
Example: Spelling is / easy / reading.
Spelling is not so easy as reading.
A. 1. Girls are / brave / boys. 2. Coats are / short / dresses. 3. Cats are / clever / dogs. 4. Boys are / polite / girls. 5. Old houses are / comfortable / new ones. 6. Bushes are / tall / trees. 7. She is / pretty / her sister. 8. He is / young / his wife. 9. His brother is / tall / he. 10. Her sister is / cheerful / she is.
B. 1. This rose is / red / that one. 2. This room is / dark / that one. 3. This flat is / comfortable / that one. 4. This pencil is / sharp / that one. 5. This book is / interesting / that one.
Упражнение XIII. Переведите предложения.
1. Вечер не такой ясный, как утро. 2. Этот стул не такой тяжелый, как кресло. 3. Он не такой способный, как его брат. 4. Она не такая высокая, как ее сестра. 5. Он не такой молодой, как его брат. 6. Кошки не такие умные, как собаки. 7. Он не такой смелый, как его отец. 8. Она не такая хорошенькая, как ее старшая сестра. 9. Сегодняшняя ночь не такая теплая, как вечер. 10. Она не такая стройная, как ее подруга.
Упражнение XIV. Вставьте as … as или so … as.
1. He is … kind to me … you. 2. His voice is … disagreeable … his face. 3. She is not … clever … her friend. 4. Her face is … pleased … the face of the woman at the gate. 5. In all the country-side there is no garden … lovely … his. 6. The king is … black … ebony. 7. The Sphinx is … old … the world. 8. She is … agile … a jungle cat. 9. I am going to be … good … my grandfather. 10. Relatives are never … good … friends. 11. No one is … pretty … she is. 12. I am not … old … my sister. 13. Today it is … rainy … it was yesterday. 14. The picture is … wonderful … that one.
Упражнение XV. Переведите словосочетания.
A. Stronger than death; fresher than air; whiter than snow; colder than ice; blacker than soot; older than the world; hotter than the sun; higher than the mountain; braver than the lion; farther than the stars.
B. More immense than space; more wonderful than life; more thrilling than a detective story; more beautiful than the stars; more generous than a noble heart; lovelier than a flower; more pleasant than a summer day.
Упражнение XVI. Выберите правильное прилагательное.
1. We were horrifying / horrified when we heard about the disaster. 2. It’s sometimes embarrassing / embarrassed when you have to ask people for money. 3. Are you interesting / interested in football? 4. I enjoyed the football match. It was quite exciting / excited. 5. I had never expected to be offered the job. I was really amazing / amazed when I was offered it. 6. It was a really terrifying / terrified experience. Afterwards everybody was very shocking / shocked. 7. The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages. It was really disgusting / disgusted. 8. Do you easily get embarrassing / embarrassed?
Упражнение XVII. Употребите прилагательное в скобках в правильной форме, обращая внимание на окончание –ing или –ed.
1. It has been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress-)
a) This weather is … . b) This weather makes me … .
2. Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interests. (interest-)
a) Tom is … in astronomy. b) He finds astronomy very … .
3. I turned off the television in the middle of the programme. (bore-)
a) The programme was … . b) I was … .
4. Ann is going to America next month. She has never been there before. (excit-)
a) She is really … about going. b) It will be an … experience for her.
5. Diana teaches young children. It’s a hard job. (exhaust-)
a) She often finds her job … . b) At the end of the day’s work she is often … .
A. Образуйте прилагательные от соответствующих существительных.
Example: swamp – swampy
Sand, rock, juice, grass, star, bone, skin, water, mist.
B. Вставьте данные прилагательные в следующие предложения.
1. This … land is very good for farming. Cows and sheep can feed here all the year round. 2. Peter, eat some more roast beef. You should eat more: you have grown so …! 3. On such … mornings it’s very difficult to drive, as you can’t see the road clearly. 4. These are … apples. I like them most of all. 5. My little brother never eats fish if it is … . 6. Holidaymakers love the … beaches in the south of Australia. 7. Why does this coffee taste so …? 8. The picture shows the … mountains of Scotland. 9. The sky is unusually … tonight. How beautiful! 10. … places have a lot of water in all seasons.
Упражнение XIX. Выберите правильное прилагательное.
1. I bought the (latest / last) edition of Webster Dictionary. 2. I bought the (latest / last) copy of today’s paper. 3. His (last / latest) words were: “The end”. 4. What is the (last / latest) news? 5. What do you think of John’s (last / latest) play? 6. What is the (last / latest) day of the week?
Упражнение XX. Переведите предложения.
1. Ты слышал последние новости? Анна приехала. 2. Страница 254 – последняя страница в этой книге. 3. Его последняя книга очень популярна. А что он пишет сейчас? 4. У меня нет последнего издания этой книги. 5. «Приключения Тома Сойера» (“The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”) – это не последний роман Марка Твена. 6. Мой брат мало что понимает (знает) в последней моде. 7. Какой последний фильм ты смотрел?
Упражнение XXI. Выберите правильную форму прилагательного.
1. Mary’s (older / elder) sister has been staying in the USA for seven years now. 2. Whose grandfather is (older / elder) – yours or Ivan’s? 3. Collin is the (oldest / eldest) student in our class. 4. Is Steve your (older / elder) or younger brother? 5. My uncle is the (oldest / eldest) member of my family. 6. The building of our school is (older / elder) than all the other buildings in the area. 7. My friend William is a year and a half (older / elder) than me. 8. Do you know that Mr Richardson’s (older / elder) daughter is a ballet dancer?
Упражнение XXII. Выберите правильную форму прилагательного. В некоторых предложениях могут употребляться обе формы.
1. What do you think of your (further / farther) education. 2. He lives four miles (further / farther) away from the cinema than I do. 3. We have no (further / farther) information. Call us later, please. 4. The post-office is (further / farther) from the school than the park. 5. They agreed to meet in the (farthest / furthest) corner of the park. 6. I wonder what her (farther / further) explanation is going to be. 7. The hunter’s house is on the (further / farther) shore of the lake. 8. Have you got any (further / farther) questions?
Упражнение XXIII. Переведите словосочетания.
Дальнейшее образование, самый дальний магазин, более удаленная деревня, самый дальний район, дальнейшие детали, дальнейшие сведения, самый удаленный город от столицы, самый дальний угол сада, дальнейшие извинения, более удаленная площадь от центра.
Упражнение XXIV. Выберите правильную форму прилагательного.
1. Two passengers talking on the bus: “What’s the (nearest / next) stop?” 2. We’ll have to walk to the (nearest / next) shop, I’m afraid. 3. How do you usually get to the (nearest / next) underground station? 4. Do you know the name of your (nearest / next-) door neighbour? 5. Excuse me, where is the (nearest / next) telephone box? 6. What is your (nearest / next) question? 7. Peter lives (nearest / next) to the school of all of us. 8. We have to hurry if we want to catch the (nearest / next) bus to Liverpool.
Упражнение I. Переведите предложения.
1. William Shakespeare was born in 1564 and died in 1616 in Stratford-upon-Avon. 2. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays. 3. Jack London was born on the 12th of January 1876 and died in 1916. 4. On April 12th, 1961 the whole world learned about Gagarin’s flight.
Упражнение II. Напишите эти числительные.
1. The cardinals: 1, 2, 3, 13, 12, 27, 33, 40, 14, 7, 55, 5, 11, 10, 88, 90, 19, 15, 20, 4, 79, 16, 31, 18, 17, 66, 69, 100, 102, 247, 248, 389, 1000, 1008, 1096, 1376, 2355, 3333, 10003, 52100, 1 000 000.
2. The ordinals: 17th, 20th, 24th, 149th, 83rd, 56th, 150th, 178th, 209th.
3. The dates: 1975, 1982, 1990, 1991, 2000, 2001, 2500, 2903.
Упражнение III. Напишите эти телефонные номера.
13-10, 45-76, 20-89, 44-22, 10-99, 63-37, 1-17-55, 3-80-77, 2-88-45, 33-33, 4-99-00, 5-67-01, 289-44-25, 136-00-77.
Упражнение IV. Посчитайте.
17 + 3 =… 14 – 6 =…
3289 +1100 =… 785 – 371 =…
3 + 13 =… 38 – 18 =…
570 + 735 =… 1000 – 34 =…
Упражнение V. Прочитайте.
£2, £17, 90 p, £100, £6.20 p, 75 p, £6.06 p, £1000, 10 p, £71,30 p, $5, $25, $2 000 000, $75, $10, $7, $3 000 50, $145, $5275, $90, $15.05.
Упражнение VI. Измените сочетания по образцу.
Example: Chapter 1 – the first chapter
Chapter 3, Lesson 12, Part 2, page 371, Book 1, Part 5, Lesson 22, page 80, Chapter 13, page 100, Lesson 8, Chapter 43.
Упражнение VII. Прочитайте и напишите даты.
2/1, 23/2, 8/3, 12/4, 1/5, 4/6, 9/7, 11/8, 13/9, 5/10, 7/11, 31/12; 1 April, 2 March, 17 September, 19 November, 23 June; 15/7/67, 29/2/76, 19/12/83, 3/10/70, 31/5/93.
Упражнение VIII. Переведите на английский язык.
1. 1-го сентября 1984 года; 7-го ноября 1990 года; 24-го октября 1917 года; 22 июня 1941 года; 28 апреля 1947 года; 8-го марта 1861 года; 21-го января 1824 года; 22-го апреля 1870 года; 19 августа 1991 года; 10 февраля 1972 года.
2. 1 325 543 книги; 1 325 учеников; 266 дней; около 18 000 студентов; более 1 500 000 человек; более 250 000 000 человек.
3. Первый космонавт, второй приз, пятый параграф, часть первая, номер десятый, сороковой размер.
Упражнение IX. Выберите правильное слово.
1. (million / millions) of people travel abroad and enjoy it. 2. I have three (hundred / hundreds) books at home. 3. I know at least two (dozen / dozens) places where we could go on holiday. 4. One can see (thousand / thousands) of stars in the night sky. 5. Nick brought (hundred / hundreds) of photos from the summer camp. 6. We have learned several (hundred / hundreds) English words. 7. This car can do ten (dozen / dozens) miles an hour. 8. The population of Great Britain is over fifty (million / millions) people. 9. Moscow Zoo has (hundred / hundreds) of species of different birds. 10. There are only four (hundred / hundreds) pupils in this school.
(THE VERB ‘TO BE’)
Упражнение I. Прочитайте и переведите предложения.
1. I am ill. 2. You are late. 3. It is Sunday. 4. We are at school. 5. They are present. 6. It’s a bit cold today, isn’t it? 7. The museum is opposite the theatre. 8. Business is business. 9. You are not angry, are you? 10. It was seven o’clock in the evening. 11. He was on duty yesterday. 12. I was glad to see you. 13. The children were in the yard. 14. You were at the cinema at that time. 15. We were happy to be at the concert. 16. Last year I was in Suzdal with my parents. 17. I was not at the cinema. 18. He was not well. 19. We were not absent yesterday.
Упражнение II. Перепишите предложения в прошедшем времени.
1. The weather is fine. 2. He is in the fifth form. 3. I am at home. 4. She is seventeen years old. 5. They are very young. 6. I am in the park. 7. We are good friends. 8. You are wrong.
Упражнение III. Вставьте am, is или are.
1. The weather … very nice today. 2. I … not tired. 3. This case … very heavy. 4. These cases … very heavy. 5. The dog … asleep. 6. I … hot. Can you open the window, please? 7. This castle … one thousand years old. 8. My brother and I … good tennis players. 9. Ann … at home but her children … at school. 10 Clara … married. 11. I … a student. My sister … an architect. 12. Where … you from? 13. I … from Italy. 14. What … your name? 15. Christina … twenty-nine years old. 16. Mike and Rosie … from London. 17. He … a doctor. 18. We … in class. 19. It … Monday today. 20. I … at home. 21. The teacher’s name … David. 22. My parents … at work. 23. I … married. 24. How old … you? 25. How old … your brother? 26. I … glad to see you. 27. How … you? 28. The dog … in the garden. 29. Tom’s parents … travel agents. 30. … your father a carpenter? 31. The best seats … 10$. 32. Moscow … the capital of Russia. 33. What … the weather like today? 34. … Tom and Bob good football players? 35. … you hungry? 36. What … your parents’ address? 37. Your money … in your handbag.
Упражнение IV. Дополните предложения при помощи am, is или are.
1. My shoes very dirty. 2. My bed very comfortable. 3. Your cigarettes in your bag. 4. I not very happy today. 5. This restaurant very expensive. 6. The shops not open today. 7. Mr Kelly’s daughter six years old. 8. The houses in the street very old. 9. The examination not difficult. 10. Those flowers very beautiful.
Упражнение V. Составьте утвердительные или отрицательные предложения. Употребите глагол to be в настоящем времени.
1. Paris / the capital of France. 2. I / interested in football. 3. I / hungry. 4. It / warm today. 5. Rome / in Spain. 6. I / afraid of dogs. 7. Canada / a very big country. 8. My hands / cold. 9. The Amazon / in Africa. 10. Diamonds / cheap. 11. Motor-racing / a dangerous sport. 12. Cats / big animals.
Упражнение VI. Составьте вопросы, употребляя am, is, are.
1. your mother at home? 2. your parents at home? 3. this hotel expensive? 4. you interested in art? 5. the shops open today? 6. the park open today? 7. what colour your car? 8. where my key? 9. where my socks? 10. how old your father? 11. what colour his eyes? 12. why John angry with me? 13. how much these shoes? 14. who your favourite actor? 15. why you always late?
Упражнение VII. Вставьте was или were.
1. Who … absent yesterday? 2. We … in the museum last week. 3. The weather … very fine. 4. The bus stop … not far from the hotel. 5. When he … in St. Petersburg he tried to see as much as possible. 6. We … very glad to take part in the excursion to the exhibition. 7. Where … you when I rang you up? 8. What … the weather like yesterday? It … not very cold, but it … windy. 9. Kate got married when she … 24 years old.
Упражнение VIII. Вставьте подходящую форму глагола to be.
1. You … cold, are you? 2. You’re American, … you? 3. She’s here already, … she? 4. I’m right, … I? 5. We’re late again, … we? 6. They’re French, … they? 7. He … angry, was he? 8. Her family name is now Jones, but it … Smith before she got married. 9. You … early, weren’t you? 10. The name of the country … previously Rhodesia, but it … now Zimbabwe. 11. I … hungry. – You can’t be. We only had breakfast an hour ago. 12. It … very cold and windy today, so wear a coat. 13. She … a very nice woman, but her late husband … a very unpleasant man. 14. This … a beautiful blue dress. Buy it. 15. Today … the 23rd of March, yesterday it … the 22nd. 16. … Mr James in? – No, I’m sorry, he … here not long ago, but now he … out. 17. I’m sure the twins … 18 today; they … 17 last year. 18. … Fred and Carmen at home when you called? – No, they …, but they … home now. 19. It … only 2 miles to the shops now. It … 20 miles to any shop from our old house.
Упражнение IX. Составьте отрицательные предложения.
1. He was late for the mathematics lesson. 2. The children were in the gymnasium. 3. The school was in the centre of the town. 4. It was cold in the morning. 5. The child was in bed. 6. The weather was fine at the weekend. 7. The articles were interesting. 8. The days were long in January. 9. It was Saturday yesterday. 10. I was in Yakutsk last summer. 11. I was ill last week. 12. My friend was absent from University last Wednesday. 13. My aunt was in hospital last month.
Упражнение X. Прочитайте и переведите предложения.
1. Was he late for his music lesson? – No, he wasn’t. 2. Was it Monday or Tuesday yesterday? – It was Tuesday. 3. What was the weather like last week? – It was fine. 4. Where were you yesterday? – I was in the library. 5. He was ten years old, wasn’t he? – Yes, he was. 6. Who was absent yesterday? – Petrov was. 7. Who was on duty last Friday? – Smirnova and I were. 8. Was your friend with you at eight o’clock yesterday? – No, he wasn’t. 9. How old were your parents in 1980? – They were 19 and 15. 10. You were present at the club, weren’t you? – Yes, I was.
Упражнение XI. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What date was it yesterday? 2. What day was it yesterday? 3. What was the weather like yesterday? 4. When were you at the library? 5. Where were you at six o’clock yesterday? 6. Who was absent from the lesson yesterday?
Упражнение XII. К каждому предложению задайте вопрос, начинающийся с вопросительного слова, данного в скобках.
1. All the students were present. (Who) 2. My parents were at home in the afternoon. (When) 3. It was Sunday yesterday. (What day) 4. The weather was fine (What … like) 5. It was very cold. (Was) 6. The ground and the trees were white with snow. (What … like) 7. She was a University student (What) 8. The shoe shop was open at that time. (Was) 9. The children were in the library all day. (Where) 10. It was early morning (Was … or…)
Упражнение XIII. Употребите глагол to be в форме настоящего или прошедшего времени.
1. Last year she … 22, so she … 23 now. 2. Today the weather … nice, but yesterday it … cold. 3. I … hungry. Can I have something to eat? 4. I … hungry last night, so I had something to eat. 5. Where … you at 11 o’clock last Friday morning? 6. Why … you so angry yesterday? 7. Don’t buy those shoes. They … too expensive. 8. We … tired when we arrived home, so we went to bed. 9. This time last year I … in Paris. 10. We must go now. It … very late. 11. Charlie Chaplin died in 1978. He … a famous film star. 12. “Where … the children?” – “I don’t know. They … in the garden ten minutes ago.”
ВВОДНОЕ ‘THERE BE’
(INTRODUCTORY ‘THERE BE’)
Упражнение I. Переведите предложения.
1. There’s a big tree in the garden. 2. There’s a good film on TV tonight. I’m going to watch it. 3. “Have you got any money?” – “Yes, there’s some in my bag.” 4. Excuse me, is there a hotel near here? 5. We can’t go skiing. There isn’t any snow. 6. There are some big trees in the garden. 6. Are there any letters for me today? 7. This is a modern town. There aren’t many old buildings here. 8. How many players are there in a football team? 9. There are 11 players in a football team. 10. There is a strong wind blowing from the North. 11. There is nothing to do here.
Упражнение II. Напишите предложения, начиная их с there are. Выберите числа: 7, 9, 15, 26, 30, 50.
1. days / a week; 2. states / the USA; 3. players / a rugby team; 4. planets / the solar system; 5. letters / the English alphabet; 6. days / September.
Упражнение III. Данфорд (Dunford) – маленький город. Опишите город при помощи предложений, начинающихся с there is/isn’t/are/aren’t.
Example: There isn’t a theatre in Dunford.
Упражнение IV. Переведите разделительные вопросы.
1. There is a book on the desk, isn’t there? 2. There is a round table in the middle of the room, isn’t there? – Yes, there is. 3. There is no TV set in the bedroom, is there? – No, there isn’t. 4. There are ten apple-trees in the garden, aren’t there? – No, there aren’t. 5. There are no armchairs in the living room, are there? – Yes, there are.
Упражнение V. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. There is a desk in you room, isn’t there? 2. There is a square table in the middle of your living room, isn’t there? 3. There is no sofa in your room, is there? 4. There are two windows in your room, aren’t there? 5. There is a telephone in your flat, isn’t there? 6. There is no garden in front of your house, is there? 7. Is there any chalk at the blackboard? 8. There are some pictures in the classroom, aren’t there? 9. Are there any girls at the desk in front of you? 10. There is no paper in your bag, is there? 11. Are there any maps on the walls of your room? 12. Are there any books on your desk?
Упражнение VI. Напишите общие вопросы к данным предложениям.
1. There is some paper in the desk. 2. There are some children on the playground. 3. There is some coffee in the cup. 4. There are some toys in the children’s room. 5. There are some boys in the yard. 6. There is some bread on the plate. 7. There are some books in the box. 8. There is a sports centre in the town.
Упражнение VII. Задайте вопросы к каждому предложению, начиная их со слов, данных в скобках.
1. There is a little girl in the room. (Who) 2. There is a boy in the yard. (Who) 3. There are two women in the street. (Who) 4. There are some students in the corridor. (Who) 5. There is a red flower in the vase. (Where) 6. There is a white dog on the carpet. (Where) 7. There is an old apple-tree in the garden. (Where) 8. There are some apples on the plate. (Where) 9. There are four glasses on the table. (How many) 10. There are five pencils on the desk (How many) 11. There are three cats on the sofa. (How many) 12. There are ten people in the hall. (How many)
Упражнение VIII. Составьте предложения, употребляя слова в скобках.
Example: There is a cat in the room. (dog) – There is a cat in the room, there is no dog there.
1. There is a cup on the table. (plate) 2. There is a cup on the table. (glass) 3. There is a pencil on the book. (pen) 4. There is some butter on the plate. (cheese) 5. There is some tea in the pot. (coffee) 6. There is some milk in the bottle. (water) 7. There is some sugar on the table. (salt) 8. There are some pencils in the box. (pens) 9. There are two chairs in the room (arm-chairs) 10. There are some flowers on the table. (apples) 11. There are some boys in the yard. (girls) 12. There are two cats in the garden. (dogs)
Упражнение IX. Вставьте their is/ there isn’t/ is there/ there are/ there aren’t/ are there.
1. Dunford is a very modern town. ______________ many old buildings.
2. Look! ______________ a photograph of George in the newspaper!
3. Excuse me, ________________ a restaurant near here?
4. __________________ five people in my family: my parents, my two sisters and me.
5. We can’t take any photographs. _______________ a film in the cinema.
6. How many students ________________ in your class?
7. Where can we sit? ________________ any chairs.
8. _________________ a bus from the city centre to the airport.
9. Look! ____________ Carol.
Упражнение X. Переведите предложения.
1. There was a good film on TV yesterday evening. 2. We stayed at a very big hotel. There were 250 rooms. 3. When I arrived home, I was hungry but there wasn’t anything to eat. 4. Were there any letters for me yesterday morning? 5. Look! There has been an accident. 6. This road is very dangerous. There have been many accidents on it. 7. Do you think there will be a lot of people at the party on Saturday? 8. Tomorrow the weather will be cold. There will be some rain in the afternoon.
Упражнение XI. Вставьте there be в правильной временной форме.
1. I was hungry but _____________ anything to eat. 2. _______________ any letters for me yesterday? 3. _______________ a football match on TV last night but I didn’t see it. 4. “We stayed at a nice hotel.” – “Did you? _______________ a swimming-pool?” 5. The suitcase was empty. _______________ any clothes in it. 6. I found a wallet in the street but ______________ any money in it. 7. “_______________ many people at the meeting?” – “No, very few.” 8. We didn’t visit the museum. _______________ enough time. 9. I’m sorry. I’m late. ________________ a lot of traffic. 10. The radio wasn’t working because ________________ any batteries in it. 11. ________________ a good film on TV yesterday evening. 12. Look! ________________ an accident. Call the ambulance! 13. ________________ 24 hours in a day. 14. __________________ a party at the club last Friday but I didn’t go. 15. Look! This bag is empty. ________________ nothing in it. 16. “Why are those policemen outside the bank?” – “________________ a robbery.” 17. When we arrived at the cinema, _________________ a long queue outside. 18. _______________ somebody at the station to meet you when you arrive tomorrow. 19. Then years ago __________________ 500 children at the school. Now ________________ over a thousand. 20. An hour ago there ____________
a lot of people on the platform waiting for the train.
Упражнение XII. Измените предложения, употребляя there be в правильной временной форме.
1. A public holiday is on May, the 1st. 2. Two men are at the door. 3. A good clothes shop is not far from here. 4. An interesting article was in yesterday’s paper. 5. A new security system will be in operation from next week. 6. A photograph of that girl was in last week’s magazine. 7. A summit between the two world leaders will be in Moscow.
(THE VERB ‘TO HAVE’)
Упражнение I. Подберите к каждому предложению подходящее выражение. Употребите глагол в правильной форме.
To have a baby, have a party, have a cigarette, have a swim, have a chat, have a look, have a nice time, have a good flight, have a bath, have a rest.
1. Jack likes to keep fit, so he ___________ every day.
2. Tom and Ann have just come back from the restaurant. You say: “Hello, ___________________?”
3. We __________________ last Friday. It was great – we invited lots of people.
4. “How often _____________________?” – “Not often. I don’t like washing.”
5. Suzanne gave up her job six months ago when she ________________.
6. Excuse me, can I _____________________ at your newspaper, please?
7. You meet Tom at the airport. He has just arrived. You say: “Hello, Tom! ________________________?”
8. “Where’s Jim?” – “He ____________________ in his room. He is very tired.”
9. I met Ann in the street yesterday. We stopped and ________________.
10. I haven’t seen you since you came back from holiday. _________________________?
11. I don’t usually smoke. But I felt nervous, so I __________________.
Упражнение II. Измените предложения, употребляя правильную форму have got.
1. London has a lot of parks. 2. I have a lot of money. 3. We have a lot of homework tonight. 4. Do you have any children? 5. Our school has a library, but it doesn’t have any computers. 6. My friends have a CD player. 7. I don’t have a car. 8. Does you house have a garden?
Упражнение III. Дайте два варианта вопросов и ответов.
Example: Do you have a car? – Yes, I do. I have a car.
Have you got a car? – Yes, I have. I have got a car.
A camera; a stereo; a computer; a bicycle; a credit card; brothers and sisters; a passport; Carol / many friends; Mr and Mrs Lewis / any children; your parents / a holiday home; your sister / a car; your brother / a motorbike.
Упражнение IV. Составьте утвердительные и отрицательные предложения, используя have got или have.
1. Jim / a camera. 2. I / not / black hair. 3. Ann / not / a camera. 4. I / not / a camera. 5. I / not / a bicycle. 6. Jim / not / a bicycle. 7. Ann / not / black hair. 8. Ann / two brothers. 9. Jim / not / black hair. 10. Ann / a bicycle. 11. Jim / a sister. 12. I / brothers and sisters.
Упражнение V. Составьте отрицательные предложения c have or have got.
Example: I can’t make a phone call. (any change) – I haven’t got any change.
I couldn’t read the notice. (my glasses) – I didn’t have my glasses.
1. I can’t climb up onto the roof. (a ladder) 2. We couldn’t visit the museum. (enough time) 3. He couldn’t find his way to our house. (a map) 4. She can’t pay her bills. (any money) 5. I couldn’t make an omelette. (any eggs) 6. I can’t get into the house. (my key) 7. They couldn’t take any photographs. (a camera) 8. We couldn’t go out in the rain. (an umbrella)
Упражнение VI. Вставьте have got, has got, haven’t got или hasn’t got.
1. They like animals. They _______________ three dogs and two cats.
2. Sarah _______________ a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
3. Everybody likes Tom. He _______________ a lot of friends.
4. Mr and Mrs Johnson ________________ two children, a boy and a girl.
5. An insect _________________ six legs.
6. I can’t open the door. I _______________ a key.
7. Quick! Hurry! We _________________ much time.
8. “What’s wrong?” – “I _________________ something in my eye.”
9. Ben doesn’t read much. He ________________ many books.
10. It’s a nice town. It _______________ a very nice shopping centre.
11. Alice is going to the dentist. She ________________ a toothache.
12. “Where is my newspaper?” – “I don’t know. I ____________ it”.
13. Julia wants to go on holiday but she _______________ any money.
14. I’m not going to work today. I ______________ a bad cold.
Упражнение VII. Составьте вопросы, употребляя have or have got.
Example: Excuse me, have you got a light, please?
Did you have a lot of friends when you lived in London?
1. Why are you holding your mouth like that? ____________________ a toothache?
2. ______________________ enough time to answer all the questions in the exam last week?
3. I need a stamp for this letter. ______________________ any?
4. “It started to rain when I was walking home.” – “Did it? ____________ an umbrella?”
5. “___________________ the time, please?” – “Yes, it’s ten past seven.”
6. ____________________a beard before you joined the army?
Упражнение VIII. Переведите предложения.
1. We didn’t have to get up early on Sunday. 2. You will have to go to the bus stop to meet your aunt and uncle. 3. You don’t have to walk, take a bus. 4. Do you have to buy new textbooks every year? 5. You will have to send him a telegram or a postcard. 6. I was not well and had to see my doctor.
Упражнение IX. Прочитайте предложения и назовите те, в которых to have выражает долженствование или необходимость.
1. I have a penfriend in England. 2. I have forgotten to turn off the gas in the kitchen. 3. I have to visit a doctor; I’m not well. 4. I have tea with bread and butter for supper. 5. Do you have a library at home? 6. Do you have dinner at 2 o’clock? 7. Do you have enough bread? 8. Do you have to help your parents?
Упражнение X. Составьте как можно больше предложений.
don’t have to
work in shifts.
do some/any work at home.
wear a uniform.
get up early.
Упражнение XI. Дайте отрицательную форму предложений.
1. I have to go to the doctor. 2. He has to have his breakfast. 3. He had to stay at school after the lessons. 4. You will have to put on your raincoat. 5. They had to send a telegram. 6. They had to take a taxi to get to the theatre on time.
Упражнение XII. Составьте предложения о своей семье.
don’t have to
doesn’t have to do the washing-up.
make the bed in the morning.
do the shopping.
do the cooking.
do the ironing.
go to work.
work in the garden.
get up early in the morning.
Упражнение XIII. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What do you have to put on when the weather is bad? 2. Where did you have to go when you wanted to buy an ice cream? 3. When will you have to have supper if you are going to the theatre in the evening? 4. Who has to go and bring some chalk if there isn’t any? 5. You have to spend more than three hours on your homework, don’t you? 6. What do you have to do in the morning? 7. What new subjects do you have this year? 8. Did you have to go to the library yesterday? 9. How many lessons will you have tomorrow? 10. What have you prepared for your English lesson? 10. Where did you have to go yesterday evening? 11. When did you have your last holiday party?
Упражнение XIV. Вставьте have to, has to или had to.
1. I’ve got some pills from the doctor. I ________________ take them three times a day.
2. Thanks for a lovely evening! We _______________ leave now or we’ll miss our bus.
3. Remember! When you drive in England you _______________ drive on the left!
4. Mary’s in panic. She _______________ arrive at the airport at 2.30, but it’s 2.00 and she isn’t ready yet.
5. At the weekend Jack wears jeans and a T-shirt. During the week he ______________ wear a suit and a tie.
6. “Why are you late?” – “Sorry. I ______________ go to the bank, and there was a queue.”
Упражнение XV. Перефразируйте предложения, употребляя have got to do something.
1. Ann has to run. 2. Billy has to play the piano every evening. 3. We don’t have to wake him so early. 4. Where do you have to go? 5. They don’t have to learn Welsh. 6. I have to phone Phil.
Упражнение XVI. Дайте краткие ответы на вопросы.
1. Does your teacher have to correct your homework? 2. Do you have to cook at home? 3. Does your father have to travel a lot in his job? 4. Did you have to take any exams last year? 5. Do you have to look up a lot of words in your dictionary?
Упражнение XVII. Вставьте don’t have to, doesn’t have to или didn’t have to.
1. “How much are the tickets for the concert?” – “They’re free. You _______________ pay for them.
2. Lady Vanessa has a maid. She __________________ do any housework.
3. The holiday was marvelous. We __________________ do anything! We just sat by the pool all day!
4. I’ve just bought my first car. It’s great! Now I ___________________ ask people for a lift all the time.
5. When I go on holiday I take nylon shirts because I _____________ iron them. You just hand them dry and they’re ready to wear.
6. Paul’s won a million pounds! He _______________ have another day’s work in his life!
7. “Did you go to church when you were young?” – “Yes. I _______________ to go, but I wanted to.”
Упражнение XVIII. Спросите своего собеседника, почему ему/ей придется что-то сделать.
1. I’ve got to get up early. 2. I have to stay at home today. 3. I have to call Mary at once. 4. I’ve got to buy new shoes. 5. I’ve got to send a letter to him at once. 6. I’ve got to take my little brother to the Zoo. 7. I have to do this exercise in writing. 8. I have to translate this article. 9. I have to write a short story about some animal. 10. I’ve got to run now.
Упражнение XIX. Задайте вопрос, начиная его со слова, данного в скобках.
1. The children have to spend an hour or two in the forest. (Who …)
2. They had to stay at school after their lessons. (Why …)
3. He has to look after his younger sister. (Who … after)
4. The teacher had to write a letter to Victor’s parents. (Who … to?)
5. They will have to stay in town for a month or so. (Where …)
6. She had to clean her room and wash the floor before she began her work. (What …)
Упражнение XX. Расположите слова в правильном порядке.
1. job, wear, have, in, uniform, you, your, to, do, a?
2. books, have, many, you, buy, so, why, did, to?
3. States, visa, get, to, to, go, you, do, have, a, the, to?
4. John, does, pills, take, often, his, how, have, to?
5. plant, carefully, you, after, look, do, have, to, this, very?
Упражнение XXI. Переведите предложения, употребите have, have got.
1. У меня болит голова. 2. У нас в огороде много овощей. 3. Сколько английских книг у вас в библиотеке? 4. У нашего соседа нет ни машины, ни дачи. 5. В прошлом году у миссис Смит была красная машина. Сейчас – желтая. 6. Какого цвета у нее волосы? 7. Что у нас на обед?
Упражнение I. Прочитайте и переведите наречия.
Usually, coldly, readily, slowly, highly, correctly, badly, warmly, happily, brightly, richly, freely, strongly, loudly, quickly, wonderfully.
Упражнение II. Переведите предложения.
1. How does the boy speak? He speaks quickly. 2. How do you rest on Sunday? We usually spend the day in a forest. 3. How were the schoolchildren met on the farm? They were warmly met by the farmers. 4. What was the weather like? The sun shone brightly. 5. How did the family live? They lived happily. 6. How does she speak English? She speaks English correctly.
Упражнение III. Прочитайте предложения и определите, являются ли подчеркнутые слова наречиями или прилагательными.
1. It’s late, you must go to bed. 2. We never come late for our classes. 3. A year ago he lived in the Far East. 4. How far from your school do you live? 5. They took a fast train to Novosibirsk. 6. You speak English too fast, I can’t understand you. 7. Alec’s answer was the best. 8. I like this film best of all. 9. The Washington Post is a daily newspaper. 10. He went to the post-office daily. 11. We never come late for our classes. 12. The sun was high in the sky when they left home. 13. “Who can jump so high?” asked the teacher.
Упражнение IV. Выберите предложения с наречиями и зачитайте их вслух.
a) 1. You must work hard.
2. His life was very hard.
b) 1. It was a fast train.
2. You walk too fast.
c) 1. We are having much snow this winter.
2. He reads very much and prefers historical novels.
d) 1. Alec’s answer was the best.
2. I like this film best of all.
Упражнение V. Прочитайте прилагательные и образуйте от них наречия.
Active, splendid, much, wonderful, different, late, correct, early, pleasant, sweet, high, dear, happy, hard, daily, fast, calm, bright, cheap, dark, long, fast, excellent, cool, great, loud, bad, usual, free.
Упражнение VI. Задайте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.
1. The actress wore a long dress and looked tall.
2. The engineer stayed long at his work to finish his task.
3. They were met more warmly than before.
4. The girl works at her Physics hardest of all the subjects.
Упражнение VII. Выберите правильную форму.
1. I’m driving (careful, carefully) because it is raining. 2. Our village is always very (quiet, quietly). Nothing happens. 3. Please speak more (slow, slowly). I can’t understand you. 4. She’s a very (good, well) driver. 5. He doesn’t drive very (good, well). 6. My grandparents are very (strong, strongly) for their age. 7. I opened the door (slow, slowly). 8. Why are you (angry, angrily)? I haven’t done anything. 9. Bill is a (careful, carefully) driver. He drives (careful, carefully). 10. Can you please repeat that (slow, slowly)? 11. Come on, George! Why are you always so (slow, slowly)? 12. The party was very (good, well). I enjoyed it very much. 13. Tom didn’t do very (good, well) in his examination. 14. Jane is studying (hard, hardly) for her examination. “Where is Diane?” “She was here, but she left (sudden, suddenly).” 15. I met them a long time ago, so I don’t remember them very (good, well). 16. My brother isn’t very (good, well) at the moment. 17. Don’t eat your dinner so (quick, quickly). It’s not good for you. 18. Those oranges look (nice, nicely). Can I have one? 19. I don’t want to work for that company. They pay their workers very (bad, badly). 20. Please be (quiet, quietly). I’m reading.
Упражнение VIII. Употребите правильную форму наречия.
1. He is a bad driver. He works ________.
2. She’s a hard worker. She works _______.
3. He’s a fast runner. He runs _______.
4. I’m a better player than you. I play _______.
5. He made a sudden move. He moved ________.
6. She gave a rude answer. She answered _______.
7. The train is early. It has arrived _______.
8. The plain is very high. It’s flying _______.
9. Be careful. Act _______.
10. The bus was late. It came _______.
11. What a wide window! Open it _______.
12. I get a monthly bill. I pay _______.
13. The house was near. We went _______.
14. He’s a quick thinker. He thinks _______.
Упражнение IX. Употребите наречие или прилагательное.
1. He behaved (nice). 2. The music sounds (nice). 3. The play ended (bad). 4. This food smells (bad). 5. Your cooking is (good). 6. You cook (good). 7. The train went (smooth). 8. I’ve just shaved and my face feels (smooth).
Упражнение X. Составьте предложения с hardly. Употребите слова из скобок.
1. George and I have only met once. (know / each other) We hardly ___________.
2. I’m very tired this morning. (slept / last night) I ___________________ night.
3. You are speaking very quietly. (can / hear) I can ___________________ you.
4. I met Keith a few days ago. I hadn’t seen him for a long time. He looks very different now. (recognized) I ________________________________ him.
5. They were really shocked when they heard the news. (could / speak) ___________________________________________________________.
Упражнение XI. Раскройте скобки, употребляя слова в правильной форме.
1. You may stay as (long) as you like. 2. I can’t wait any (long). 3. He lives (high) than the third floor. 4. I cannot go any (far). 5. Our sportsmen did the exercises (well) of all. 6. Our people live (well) than before the war. 7. “Dynamo” played (badly) than “Spartak”. 8. I like books on literature (much) of all. 9. The cold wind is blowing (strongly) today than it did yesterday. 10. The pupils on duty come to school (early) to prepare the classroom for the lessons. 11. Who can run (fast), you or somebody else in your class? 12. Which do you like (much), football or basketball? 13. The sun shone as (brightly) yesterday as today. 14. Who will come home (soon), you father or your mother?
Упражнение XII. Переведите наречия, данные в скобках, и правильно расположите их в предложении.
1. Mammals live in the trees (редко). 2. Boxes are made of cardboard (часто). 3. One can see this wonderful bird (почти не, едва ли). It has become almost extinct. 4. You can find the most interesting species of animals in zoological gardens (обычно). 5. When people ruin natural habitats (время от времени) birds and animals leave them (всегда). 6. We say “birds and animals” forgetting that birds are also animals (часто). 7. It is difficult to cure this disease (иногда). 8. In this part of the country it rains in summer (едва ли, почти не). 9. People keep reptiles as pets (редко). 10. You can see swans on the ponds in our cities (время от времени).
Упражнение XIII. Выберите правильный вариант.
1. I suppose you know him well – probably (better, more well) than anybody else. 2. He spoke English badly – (worse, more badly) than we expected. 3. I can’t understand what you’re saying. Could you speak a bit (slower, more slowly)? 4. My mother felt tired last night so she went to bed (earlier, more early) than usual. 5. I’d like to change cars (oftener, more often). 6. A snail is (slower, more slow) than a tortoise. 7. If you want to find your way around the city (easilier, more easily), you should buy the map of it. 8. The younger you are, the (easier, more easy) it is to learn. 9. I’m getting (older and older, more and more old). 10. We are going (slower and slower, more and more slowly). 11. The (sooner, more soon) you start, the (quicklier, more quickly) you’ll finish. 12. This camera costs (twice more than, twice as much as) the other one. 13. Sam’s got (half less, half as many) CDs now (than, as) I had last year.
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Упражнение I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.
1. Timothy (to feed) his dog. 2. Mr Jones (to clean) his yard. 3. Nancy (to paint) her kitchen. 4. Our neighbours (to wash) their car. 5. I (to wash) my hair. 6. Who (to fix) your sink? 7. What she (to do) now? – She (to dance). 8. The children (to brush) their teeth. 9. What he (to do) at the moment? — He (to fix) his bicycle. 10. They (to have) a big dinner together. 11. The boys (to run) about in the garden. 12. I (to do) my homework. 13. John and his friends (to go) to the library. 14. Ann (to sit) at her desk. She (to study) geography. 15. A young man (to stand) at the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette. 16. The old man (to walk) about the room. 17. The dog (to lie) on the floor. 18. You (to have) a break? 19. What language you (to study)? 20. Who (to lie) on the sofa? 21. What they (to talk) about? 22. It still (to rain). 23. I (to open) an umbrella. 24. John (to play) computer games.
Упражнение II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.
It (not to rain) any more, it (to clear) up and the sun (to shine). The jazz band (to play) in the park. A lot of people (to listen) to music and they really (to have) a good time. But they (not to dance) yet. There is a coffee shop there. Only seven people (to sit) there, and only five people (to wait) in the queue. Some people (to have) sandwiches and (to drink) coffee, tea or fruit juices. Boys and girls over there (to laugh) and (to make) a lot of noise. They (to play) games and Tom (to take) pictures. So what (to go) on?
Упражнение III. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.
1. Я сижу в парке на скамейке и кормлю птиц. 2. Мама сидит на диване в гостиной и смотрит телевизор. 3. Это фотография моих друзей. Том играет на гитаре, а Джейн поет. 4. А здесь они танцуют на моем дне рождения. 5. Мы делаем упражнение. 6. Мы не купаемся. 7. Они играют во дворе? 8. Нина и Аня моют пол. 9. Коля помогает маме. 10. Ты помогаешь папе? 11. Моя сестра читает интересную книгу. 12. Они идут в школу. 13. Вы идете в школу? 14. Он работает? 15. Твоя бабушка идет в магазин? 16. Он покупает конфеты. 17. Что делает твоя сестра? 18. Где играют дети? 19. Почему ты смеешься? 20. Куда они идут? 21. Что несут эти мальчики? 22. Я читаю. 23. Он не пишет. 24. Мы не работаем. 25. Вы читаете? 26. Он спит? 27. Коля и Миша играют в футбол. 28. Катя играет на рояле. 29. Она не поет. 30. Моя сестра спит. 31. Папа пьет чай? 32. Твои родители пьют чай? 33. Я не сплю. 34. Она сидит за столом.
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE)
Упражнение I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
1. My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. :My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o’clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk). 2. My sister (to get) up at eight o’clock. 3. She (to be) a schoolgirl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 4. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 5. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 6. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 7. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 8. She (to speak) French well.
Упражнение II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
1. Andrea Schatzmann, an exchange student from Switzerland, (to live) with the Connor family in San Francisco. She (to get) up at 7 a.m. and (to take) a shower. She normally (not to have) breakfast. At half past seven she (to catch) the bus. Her first class (to start) at a quarter past eight. She always (to have) lunch at 12 o’clock in the cafeteria. The cafeteria food (to be) OK and it (to be) cheap too. Her afternoon classes (to be) from 1.15 till 3.00 p.m., so she (to be) at school all day. She usually (to have) dinner with the Connors at about 8.00. On Saturdays she (to have) lunch at the restaurant. Once a week, usually on Sunday mornings, she (to go) swimming. A few friends usually (to go) along, too. One of her friends has got a car, so he (to pick) them up and then he (to drive) them home. After swimming they often (to go) out for a pizza. On Saturday evenings she sometimes (to go) out with friends to a party or maybe to a concert. Sometimes she (to invite) friends to her house and they (to listen) to music and (to talk). Mr and Mrs Connor often (to take) them for a camping weekend to the seaside or to the mountains. From time to time she (to call) her family in Switzerland. They never (to talk) for very long because it (to be) expensive. She usually (to call) on Sundays because it (to be) cheaper then. 2. What time Andrea usually (to get) up? 3. When she (to catch) the bus? 4. She (to take) a shower in the morning? 5. She (to go) home for lunch? 6. When she (to go) swimming? 7. How she (to get) to the pool? 8. What she (to do) on Saturday evenings?
Упражнение III. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
1. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. 3. Они не работают. 4. Вы работаете? — Да. 5. Он работает? — Нет. Он учится. 6. Мой брат не учится. Он работает. 7. Ты носишь очки? 8. Вы помогаете людям? 9. Он любит читать сказки? 10. Она любит играть на скрипке? 11. Моя сестра не читает книг. 12. Наша бабушка любит спать на диване. 13. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле? 14. Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 15. Мой брат не любит читать газеты. 16. Мы спим в спальне. 17. Мой брат спит на диване в жилой комнате. 18. Моя сестра одевается перед зеркалом. 19. Мой дядя пишет книги. 20. Мы пишем упражнения в школе. 21. Я трачу свои карманные деньги на мороженое. 22. Он читает все время и не любит смотреть телевизор.
Упражнение IV. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
1. Где ты живешь? Я живу в Москве. 2. Когда у тебя каникулы? В январе. 3.Что тебе больше всего нравится в школе? 4. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает в двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 5. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? – Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж говорит по-английски. 6. Когда вы встаете? – Я встаю без четверти семь. 7. Когда встает твой брат? – Он встает без двадцати восемь. – А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? – Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 8. Он не моет руки перед едой. 9. Этот мальчик свистит в классе. 10. Он не играет ни на каком музыкальном инструменте. 11. Мальчик играет в футбол и любит смотреть мультипликационные фильмы. 12. Он любит школьные каникулы, особенно летние каникулы. 13. День рождения у мальчика 31 декабря. Он получает много подарков.
Упражнение V. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
Мой дядя – инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена – врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка. Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говори по-русски и по-немецки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он посещает курсы английского языка. Сын моего дяди – ученик. Он ходит в школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ И НАСТОЯЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE AND
THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE)
Упражнение I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. He (to work) in the centre of Chicago. 2. He (to work) in the centre of Chicago? 3. He (not work) in the centre of Chicago. 4. They (to read) many books. 5. They (to read) many books? 6. They (not to read) many books. 7. The children (to eat) soup now. 8. The children (to eat) soup now? 9. The children (not to eat) soup now. 10. You (to play) volleyball well? 11. When you (to play) volleyball? 12. What Nick (to do) in the evening? 13. He (to go) to the cinema in the evening? 14. We (not to dance) every day. 15. Look! Kate (to dance). 16. Kate (to sing) well? 17. Where he (to go) in the morning? 18. He (not to sleep) after dinner. 19. My granny (to sleep) after dinner. 20. When you (to sleep)? 21. Nina (not to sleep) now. 22. Where John (to live)? – He (to live) in England. 23. My friends from Switzerland (to speak) four languages. 24. Elvira (to speak) English, German and French? Yes, she ... . 25. She only (not to speak) Italian.
Упражнение II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. Tom (to play) football on Saturday. 2. He (not to play) football every day. 3. I (to wear) a suit now. 4. I (not to wear) jeans now. 5. My friend (not to like) to play football. 6. I (not to read) now. 7. He (to sleep) now? 8. We (not to go) to the country in winter. 9. My sister (to eat) sweets every day. 10. She (not to eat) sweets now. 11. They (to do) their homework in the afternoon. 12. They (not to go) for a walk in the evening. 13. My father (not to work) on Sunday. 14. He (to work) every day. 15. I (to read) books in the evening. 16. I (not to read) books in the morning. 17. I (to write) an exercise now. 18. I (not to write) a letter now. 19. They (to play) in the yard now. 20. They (not to play) in the street now. 21. They (to play) in the room now? 22. He (to help) his mother every day. 23. He (to help) his mother every day? 24. He (not to help) his mother every day. 25. You (to go) to school on Sunday? 26. She (to work) in a shop now? 27. He (to deliver) letters now? 28. You (to go) to the opera with your friends?
Упражнение III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. His father (not to watch) TV at the moment. He (to sleep) because he (to be) tired. 2. Pat (not to cook) dinner at the moment. She (to talk) on the phone. She (to cook) dinner every Monday. 3. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 4. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning. 5. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 6. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 7. Look! The baby (to sleep). 8. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 9. My grandmother (not to work). She (to be) retired. 10. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 11. I usually (to get) up at seven o’clock in the morning. 12. What your sister (to do) now? – She (to wash) her face and hands. 13. When you usually (to come) home from school? – I (to come) at three o’clock. 14. Where your cousin (to work)? – He (to work) at a hospital. 15. Your sister (to study) at college? – No, she (to study) at school. 16. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 17. My mother (not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning. 18. When you (to listen) to the news on the radio? 19. Who (to make) breakfast for you now? 20. You (to read) a magazine and (to think) about your holiday at the moment? 21. They (to be) good dancers but they (not to go) to discos very often. 22. What she (to talk) about right now?
Упражнение IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. I (to sit) in the waiting room at the doctor’s now. 2. I (not to work) in my office now. 3. Eric (to talk) about his holiday plans, but Kenny (not to listen) to him. He (to think) about his new car at the moment. 4. My friend (to live) in St. Petersburg. 5. My cousin (not to live) in Moscow. 6. The children (not to sleep) now. 7. The children (to play) in the yard every day. 8. They (not to go) to the stadium on Monday. 9. She (to read) in the evening. 10. She (not to read) in the morning. 11. She (not to read) now. 12. I (to write) a composition now. 13. I (not to drink) milk now. 14. I (to go) for a walk after dinner. 15. 1 (not to go) to the theatre every Sunday. 16. He (not to read) now. 17. He (to play) now. 18. He (to play) now? 19. My mother (to work) at a factory. 20. My aunt (not to work) at a shop. 21. You (to work) at an office? 22. Your father (to work) at this factory? 23. You (to play) chess now? 24. Look at the sky: the clouds (to move) slowly, the sun (to appear) from behind the clouds, it (to get) warmer. 25. How (to be) your brother? – He (to be) not well yet, but his health (to improve) day after day. 26. Listen! Who (to play) the piano in the next room? 27. Henry usually (to wear) glasses and now he (to wear) sunglasses. 28. Who (to listen) to music on his personal stereo over there right now?
Упражнение V. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. I (not to know) what to give my brother for his birthday. 2. They (to want) to publish this book in July? 3. She (to think) he (to drive) dangerously. 4. He (to understand) that he (to eat) noisily, but he always (to forget) about it. 5. Who that man (to be) who (to stand) in the doorway? – You (not to recognize) him? It (to be) John, my cousin. 6. I (to have) no time now, I (to have dinner). 7. Your family (to leave) St. Petersburg in summer? – Yes, we always (to go) to the seaside. We all (to like) the sea. Mother (to stay) with us to the end of August, but father (to return) much earlier. 8. Where Tom and Nick (to be) now? – They (to have) a smoke in the garden. 9. What you (to do) here now? – We (to listen) to tape recordings. 10. You (to want) to see my father? – Yes, I … . 11. Michael (to know) German rather well. He (to want) to know English, too, but he (to have) little time for it now. 12. What magazine you (to read)? – It (to be) a French magazine. There (to be) good articles on sports here. You (to be) interested in sports? – Yes, I ... . But I (not to know) French. 13. We (to have) an English lesson now. 14. Lena usually (to prepare) her homework at the University? – No, she ... . As a rule, she (to work) at home. – And what she (to write) now? – Oh, she (to write) an article for our wall newspaper.
Упражнение VI. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
One Sunday Agnes and her mother went to the zoo. Agnes was very excited. She was interested in everything she saw.
“Mother, look,” she said. “There (to be) a monkey in this cage. It (to eat) an apple. Now it (to give) a bite to another monkey. I (to think) monkeys (to like) apples very much.”
“Yes, dear,” said her mother.
“Now I (to want) to go and see the lions and tigers. Where they (to live), mother?”
“In that big house over there. Come along.”
Agnes enjoyed herself very much in the lion house. “Mother,” she said, “the tiger (to want) a drink: it (to go) to the dish of water there in the corner. And the lion (to look) right at me. You (to think) it (to want) to eat me up? When the lions and tigers (to have) their dinner, mother?”
“The keepers (to bring) them great pieces of meat every day at four o’clock. And they (to make) a big noise before their dinner time, so everybody (to know) they (to be) hungry.”
Упражнение VII. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. In the evening I often (to go) to see my friends. 2. On Sunday we sometimes (to go) to the cinema or to a disco club. 3. Andrew (to get) up very early as he (to live) far from school. He (to be) never late. 4. It (to be) six o'clock in the evening now. Victor (to do) his homework. His sister (to read) a book. His mother and grandmother (to talk). 5. I (to write) a letter to my grandmother who (to live) in Novgorod. I (to write) to her very often. 6. It (to take) me forty minutes to get to school. 7. Hello, Pete, where you (to go)? – I (to hurry) to school. 8. When your lessons (to begin) on Monday? – They (to begin) at nine o'clock. 9. Where your sister (to be)? – She (to do) her homework in the next room. 10. It usually (to take) me an hour to do my written exercises. 11. Where Boris (to be)? I (to look) for him. – He (to have) dinner. 12. I (to look) for a cassette recorder. You (to have) anything on sale? – Take a look at this little Sony Walkman. – Well, this Supersound might interest you. It (to be) a good size, it (to be) stereo and it (to have) a radio to listen to the news.
Упражнение VIII. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite.
1. You (to keep) to any special diet? – Well, I (not to think) it (to be) good to eat a lot of meat. I usually (to have) meat only once a week, I (to eat) lots of fruit and vegetables. 2. He (to learn) English now because he (to want) to get a better job. 3. The teacher (to know) the girl often (not to argue) with pupils. 4. I (to think) she often (to worry). 5. Barbara’s boss (to see) she (to be) always late for work. 6. I (to call) my son in Cedar Falls now. I (to want) to call him every month but it (to be) very expensive. 7. You (to hear) me now? How your job (to go)? – Great! I (to enjoy) it a lot. The only problem I (to have) here (to be) that the food (to be) so good. I (to eat) too much! I (to get) really fat. 8. Ruth (to learn) English now because she (to like) learning languages and she (to want) to impress everybody. 9. Listen to that man! You (to understand) what language he (to speak)? 10. Your English (to get) better? – Yes, I (to think) so. 11. We (to know) he never (to take) risks. 12. They (to think) he (to learn) fast, he (to know) English well and he (to speak) English fluently. 13. Don’t disturb him. He just (to work) at his English. 14. I (not to like) to watch TV very often. But at the moment I (to enjoy) my favourite film “Gone with the Wind”. And I (to be) very happy. 15. You (to have) any idea where Rick (to be)? I (not to see) him at work now. – He (to visit) his friends in Spain. 16. Hurry up! We (not to have) much time left. – I (to come)! 17. She (to try) to lose weight, I (to think). She always (to have) light lunches. 18. She (to try) to do her best. 19. My little brother (not to play) the piano very well. That (to be) why he (to practise) the piano again. 20. My grandmother (to be) busy. She (to bake) an apricot pie. She (to bake) pies every Sunday. 21. Tom (to be) tired. He (to be) embarrassed because he (to yawn) his head off. 22. I (to be) sad. That (to be) why I (to cry).
ПРОШЕДШЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE)
Упражнение I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite Tense.
1. What your neighbours (to do) yesterday? 2. Mr Smith (to fix) his car yesterday morning. 3. His wife (to water) plants in the garden. 4. Their children (to clean) the yard and then they (to play) basketball. 5. In the evening their boys (to listen) to loud music and (to watch) TV. 6. Their little girl (to cry) a little and then (to smile). 7. Her brothers (to shout) at her. 8. Mrs Smith (to work) in the kitchen. 9. She (to bake) a delicious apple pie. 10. She (to cook) a good dinner. 11. She (to wash) the dishes and (to look) very tired. 12. The children (to brush) their teeth, (to yawn) a little and (to go) to bed. 13. Their mother (to change) her clothes and (to brush) her hair. Then she (to talk) on the phone. 14. Her husband (to smoke) a cigarette and (to talk) to his wife. 15. They (to wait) for the bus. The bus (to arrive) at 9 o'clock. 16. They (to visit) their friends. 17. They (to dance) a lot there. 18. Mr and Mrs Smith (to rest) very well last night. They really (to have) a wonderful time at their friends’.
Упражнение II. Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.
On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a “five”. Pete does not get a “five” because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and take a book. Then I go home.
Упражнение III. Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.
On Tuesday I get up at half past six. I go to the bathroom and wash my hands and face and clean my teeth. Then I dress, go to the kitchen and cook breakfast for my family. At half past seven my son gets up and has breakfast. I have breakfast with him. My son eats a sandwich and drinks a cup of tea. I don’t drink tea. I drink coffee. After breakfast my son leaves home for school. I don't leave home with my son. On Tuesday I don’t work in the morning. I work in the afternoon. In the evening I am at home. My husband and my son are at home, too. We rest in the evening. My son watches TV, my husband reads newspapers and I do some work about the house. At about eleven o'clock we go to bed.
Упражнение IV. Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.
Boris wakes up when it is already quite light. He looks at his watch. It is a quarter to seven. Quick! Boris jumps out of bed and runs to the bathroom. He has just time to take a cold shower and drink a glass of tea with bread and butter. He is in a hurry to catch the eight o’clock train.
At the railway station he meets three other boys from his group. They all have small backpacks and fishing rods.
In less than an hour they get off the train at a small station near a forest. They walk very quickly and soon find themselves on the shore of a large lake. The boys spend the whole day there fishing, boating and swimming.
They return home late at night, tired but happy.
Упражнение V. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Indefinite.
1. His sister (to study) English every day. 2. She (to study) English two hours ago. 3. You (to come) home at six o’clock yesterday? – No. Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 4. I (to go) to bed at ten o’clock every day. 5. I (to go) to bed at ten o’clock yesterday. 6. My brother (to wash) his face every morning. 7. Yesterday he (to wash) his face at a quarter past seven. 8. I (not to have) history lessons every day. 9. We (not to rest) yesterday. 10. My brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday. 11. My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yesterday she (to walk) to her office. 12. You (to talk) to the members of your family every day? – Yes, I ... . But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 13. Your sister (to go) to school every day? – Yes, she ... . 14. Mary (to like) writing stories. 15. Last week she (to write) a funny story about her pet. 16. You (to tell) your mother the truth about the money? 17. You (to wear) your polka-dot dress to work? – Yes, I ... . I (to wear) it yesterday. 18. We (to like) to go to the beach. We (to enjoy) swimming in the ocean last weekend.
ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Упражнение I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или Past Continuous Tense.
1. I (to write) an English exercise now. 2. I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday. 3. My little sister (to sleep) now. 4. My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday. 5. My friends (not to do) their homework now. They (to play) volleyball. 6. My friends (not to do) their homework at seven o'clock yesterday. They (to play) volleyball. 7. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 8. She (not to read) now. 9. Now she (to go) to school. 10. What you (to do) now? – I (to drink) tea. 11. You (to drink) tea at this time yesterday? – No, I (not to drink) tea at this time yesterday, I (to eat) a banana. 12. My sister is fond of reading. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday, and now she (to read) again. 13. Look! My cat (to play) with a ball. 14. When I went out into the garden, the sun (to shine) and birds (to sing) in the trees. 15. You (to eat) ice-cream now? 16. You (to eat) ice cream when I rang you up yesterday? 17. What your father (to do) now? 18. What your father (to do) from eight till nine yesterday? 19. Why she (to cry) now? 20. Why she (to cry) when I saw her yesterday?
Упражнение II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous Tense.
1. I (to go) to the cinema yesterday. 2. I (to go) to the cinema at four o’clock yesterday. 3. I (to go) to the cinema when you met me. 4. I (to do) my homework the whole evening yesterday. 5. I (to do) my homework when mother (to come) home. 6. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 7. I (to do) my homework from five till eight yesterday. 8. I (to do) my homework at six o’clock yesterday. 9. I (not to play) the piano yesterday. I (to write) a letter to my friend. 10. I (not to play) the piano at four o’clock yesterday. I (to read) a book. 11. He (not to sleep) when father (to come) home. He (to do) his homework. 12. When I (to go) to school the day before yesterday, I (to meet) Mike and Pete. They (to talk) and (to laugh). They told me a funny story. Soon I (to laugh), too. I still (to laugh) when we (to come) to school. After school I (to tell) this story at home. My father and mother (to like) it very much. 13. When we (to be) in the country last summer, I (to go) to the forest one day. In the forest I (to find) a little fox cub. I (to bring) it home. I (to decide) to tame the cub. Every day I (to feed) it and (to take) care of it. I (to tame) it the whole summer. Now the fox cub is quite tame. It lives in my house.
Упражнение III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous Tense.
1. I (to play) computer games yesterday. 2. I (to play) computer games at five o’clock yesterday. 3. He (to play) computer games from two till three yesterday. 4. We (to play) computer games the whole evening yesterday. 5. My brother (not to play) tennis yesterday. He (to play) tennis the day before yesterday. 6. My sister (not to play) the piano at four o’clock yesterday. She (to play) the piano the whole evening. 7. When I came into the kitchen, mother (to cook). 8. She (to cook) the whole day yesterday. 9. We (to wash) the floor in our flat yesterday. 10. We (to wash) the floor in our flat from three till four yesterday. 11. You (to do) your homework yesterday? 12. You (to do) your homework from eight till ten yesterday? 13. Why she (to sleep) at seven o’clock yesterday? 14. He (to sit) at the table the whole evening yesterday. 15. What Nick (to do) when you came to his place? 16. What you (to do) when I rang you up? 17. I (not to sleep) at nine o’clock yesterday. 18. What he (to do) yesterday? – He (to read) a book. 19. What he (to do) the whole evening yesterday? – He (to read) a book. 20. She (to sleep) when you came home?
Упражнение IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous.
1. When I (to come) home, my little sister (to sleep). 2. When Nick (to come) home, his brother (to play) with his toys. 3. When mother (to come) home, I (to do) my homework. 4. When father (to come) home, Pete (to sleep). 5. When mother (to come) home, the children (to play) on the carpet. 6. When I (to get up) my mother and father (to drink) tea. 7. When I (to come) to my friend’s place, he (to watch) TV. 8. When I (to see) my friends, they (to play) football. 9. When I (to open) the door, the cat (to sit) on the table. 10. When Kate (to open) the door, the children (to dance) round the New Year tree. 11. When Tom (to cross) the street, he (to fall). 12. When I (to go) to school, I (to meet) my friend. 13. When we (to go) to the cinema, we (to meet) grandmother. 14. When grandmother (to go) home, she (to see) many children in the yard. 15. When Henry (to walk about) in the forest, he (to find) a bear cub. 16. When we (to walk about) in the forest, we (to see) a hare. 17. When I (to wash) the floor, I (to find) my old toy under the sofa. 18. When granny (to read) a book on the sofa, she (to fall) asleep. 19. When I (to play) in the yard, I suddenly (to see) my old friend. 20. When Nick (to run about) in the yard, he (to fall).
Упражнение V. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous.
1. The girl (to cook) dinner when the lights (to go) out. She (to burn) herself. 2. The boy (to hurt) himself while he (to skate). 3. When the woman (to enter) the room, the children (to feed) the goldfish. 4. When I (to visit) my friends in Denmark, I (to buy) two presents for my family. 5. When it (to start) to rain, we (to bathe) in the river. 6. Yesterday at one o’clock I (to have) lunch at the canteen. 7. When he (to come) in, I (to do) my exercises. 8. What you (to do) at eight o’clock yesterday? 9. At this time yesterday I (to go) home. 10. You (to sleep) when I (to go) out. 11. He (to read) on the sofa when I (to come in) and (to sit down) beside him. 12. I (to walk) along the street with my friend when a tram (to pass). 13. She (to look out) of the window when I (to see) her. 14. We (to answer) the teacher's questions when the headmistress (to enter) the classroom. 15. They (to drink) tea when I (to come) home. 16. He (to walk) along the river when a boat (to pass). 17. The old man (to think) about his plan when he (to fall) asleep. 18. We (to listen) to an interesting lecture yesterday. 19. When I (to enter) the classroom, the teacher (to write) words on the blackboard and the pupils (to copy) them into their exercise books. 20. They (to get) ready to go out when it (to begin) raining.
Упражнение VI. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous.
1. I (to go) to the theatre yesterday. 2. At seven o’clock yesterday I (to go) to the theatre. 3. What you (to do) at 5 o’clock yesterday? – I (to play) the piano. 4. When I (to come) to school, the children (to stand) near the classroom. 5. We (to play) in the yard the whole evening yesterday. 6. When I (to prepare) breakfast in the morning, I (to cut) my finger. 7. Last year I (to go) to the United States. 8. You (to go) to Great Britain last year? – No, I (to go) to France. 9. What you (to do) yesterday? – I (to translate) a very long article. 10. When I (to ring up) my friend, he (to sleep). 11. When grandfather (to watch) TV, he (to fall) asleep. 12. When my friend (to come) to see me, I (to do) my homework. 13. When I (to go) to the stadium, I (to meet) Kate and Ann. 14. When Nick (to ring) me up yesterday, I (to help) mother. 15. When the children (to walk) through the forest, they (to see) a fox. 16. When I (to come) home, my sister (to wash) the floor. 17. When Mike (to play) in the yard, he (to find) a ball. 18. When I (to draw) yesterday, I (to break) two pencils. 19. When I (to meet) Tom, he (to go) to the shop. 20. When I (to look out) of the window, the children (to play) hide-and-seek.
Упражнение VII. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous.
We (to walk) down the street in the direction of Mike’s house, when we (to see) him in the window of a bus that (to pass) by. He (to recognize) us, too, but he could not get off as the bus (to be) overcrowded. We (to be) very sorry that we (to have) no chance to speak to him. But we could do nothing and (to decide) to go back. At that very moment we (to hear) Mike’s voice behind us. “How funny,” he (to say), “I (to go) to your place when I suddenly (to see) you here. I am so glad to see you.”
Упражнение VIII. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous.
The sun (to go) down behind the hills when I (to reach) a village which (to be) only a few miles from the sea. The working day (to be over), and the villagers (to come) home from the fields. Along the road two boys (to drive) cows and sheep in the direction of the village. I (to approach) a group of people standing near the road and (to ask) them if I could find a place in the village to spend the night. An old man (to say) he would help me. He (to take) me to his small cottage at the far end of the street. A fire (to burn) in the stove when we (to enter) the house. One girl of about eighteen (to prepare) supper in the kitchen while two other girls still (to do) something in the kitchen garden near the house. The old man (to invite) me to have supper with them. They all (to seem) to be nice people and we (to have) a friendly talk. After supper my new friends and I (to go out) into the garden. The moon (to shine) high in the sky, and the night (to be) warm and beautiful. That evening (to be) very pleasant and I shall remember it long.
Упражнение IX. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из следующих времен: Present Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Present Continuous, Past Continuous.
1. Where you (to be) yesterday? – I (to be) at home the whole day. – How strange. I (to ring) you up at two o'clock, but nobody (to answer). – Oh, I (to be) in the garden. I (to read) your book and (not to hear) the telephone. 2. What you (to do) at five o’clock yesterday? – I (to work) in the library. – I (to be) there, too, but I (not to see) you. 3. Nina (to celebrate) her birthday yesterday. Her room looked beautiful, there (to be) many flowers in it. When I (to come in), somebody (to play) the piano, two or three pairs (to dance). 4. Listen! Somebody (to play) the piano. 5. I (to like) music very much. 6. When I (to look out) of the window, it (to rain) heavily and people (to hurry) along the streets. 7. What you (to do) at seven o'clock yesterday? – I (to have) supper. 8. When I (to come) home yesterday, I (to see) that all my family (to sit) round the table. Father (to read) a letter from my uncle, who (to live) in Kiev. 9. Yesterday I (to work) at my English from five till seven. 10. It (to rain) the whole day yesterday. 11. Where your sister (to be) now? – She (to be) in her room. She (to do) her homework.
Упражнение X. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из следующих времен: Present Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Present Continuous, Past Continuous.
1. We (to have) a postcard from them two days ago. They (to say) they (to have) a marvellous time. 2. While she (to shop) this morning, she (to lose) her money. She (not to know) how. 3. They (to announce) our flight. We (to have) a problem. One of our suitcases (to miss). 4. Who (to speak) there? – I (not to know). 5. He (not to smoke). He (not to smoke) now. When he (to be) at the office yesterday, he (not to smoke), he (to work) hard. 6. When my sister (to wash) her skirt, she (to find) a pound note in the pocket. 7. When you (to learn) German? 8. We (to go) home now because it (to be) late. 9. Who you (to wait) for? 10. Her car (to break) down yesterday while she (to drive) to work. 11. When and where it (to happen)? 12. She always (to wear) nice clothes for work. Today she (to wear) a nice blouse and a dark skirt. 13. What she (to watch) at the moment? 14. I (to see) my friend in the street yesterday, but he (to run) for a bus and he (not to have) time to speak to me. 15. What your son (to do)? – He (to study) computer science.
БУДУЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Упражнение I. Составьте ситуации по образцу.
Example: you, read
Will you be home this evening?
Yes, I will. I will be reading.
1. Sharon, watch TV. 2. Steven, learn English. 3. Mr and Mrs Williams. 4. Bob, repair a sink. 5. You, play cards. 6. Kathy, play the piano. 6. Jack, listen to music. 7. You, cook. 8. Mrs McDonald, do exercises. 9. You and your brother, help your mum. 10. Dave, wash his clothes. 11. You, paint.
Упражнение II. Составьте ситуации по образцу:
A. How long will your Aunt Gertrude be staying with us? (for a few months)
B. She’ll be staying with us for a few months.
1. How long will they be staying in San Francisco? (until Friday) 2. How late will your husband be working tonight? (until 10 o’clock) 3. How much longer will you be practicing the piano? (for a few more minutes) 4. When will we be arriving in London? (at 7 a.m.) 5. How far will we be driving today? (until we reach Detroit) 6. How much longer will you be working on my car? (for a few more hours) 7. Where will you be getting off? (at the last stop) 8. How late will your daughter be studying English this evening? (until 8 o'clock) 9. How much longer will you be reading? (until I finish this chapter) 10. How soon will Santa Claus be coming? (in a few days)
Упражнение III. Прочтите тексты, ответьте на вопросы. Выучите тексты наизусть.
1. Happy Thanksgiving!
Thanksgiving is this week, and several of our relatives from out of town will be staying with us during the long holiday weekend.
Uncle Frank will be staying for a few days. He’ll be sleeping on the couch in the living room.
My wife’s parents will be staying until next Monday. They’ll be sleeping in the guest room over the garage.
And Cousin Bertha will be staying for a week or more. She’ll be sleeping in the children’s bedroom.
My wife and I will be busy for the next few days. She’ll be preparing Thanksgiving dinner, and I’ll be cleaning the house from top to bottom.
We’re looking forward to the holiday, but we know we’ll be very happy when it’s over.
1. What holiday is this week?
2. Who will be staying with them during the long holiday weekend?
3. How long will Uncle Frank be staying?
4. Where will he be sleeping?
5. How long will his wife’s parents be staying?
6. Where will they be sleeping?
7. How long will Cousin Bertha be staying?
8. Where will she be sleeping?
9. What will his wife be doing for the next few days?
10. What will he be doing for the next few days?
2. Growing Up
Jessica is growing up. Very soon she'll be walking, she’ll be talking, and she’ll be playing with the other children in the neighborhood. Jessica can't believe how quickly time flies! She won't be a baby very much longer. Soon she’ll be a little girl.
Tommy is growing up. Very soon he’ll be shaving, he’ll be driving, and he’ll be going out on dates. Tommy can’t believe how quickly time flies! He won’t be a little boy very much longer. Soon he’ll be a teenager.
Kathy is growing up. Very soon she’ll be going to college, she’ll be living away from home, and she’ll be starting a career. Kathy can’t believe how quickly time flies! She won’t be a teenager very much longer. Soon she’ll be a young adult.
Peter and Sally are getting older. Very soon they’ll be getting married, they’ll be having children, and they’ll be buying a house. Peter and Sally can’t believe how quickly time flies! They won’t be young adults very much longer. Soon they’ll be middle-aged.
Walter is getting older. Very soon he'll be reaching the age of sixty-five, he’ll be retiring, and he’ll be taking it easy for the first time in his life. Walter can’t believe how quickly time flies! He won’t be middle-aged very much longer. Soon he’ll be a senior citizen.
1. What will Jessica be doing soon?
2. Will she be a baby very much longer?
3. What will Tommy be doing soon?
4. Will he be a little boy very much longer?
5. What will Kathy be doing soon?
6. Will she be a teenager very much longer?
7. What will Peter and Sally be doing soon?
8. Will they be young adults very much longer?
9. What will Walter be doing soon?
10. Will he be middle-aged very much longer?
БУДУЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE)
Упражнение I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Indefinite .
1. I want to get a medical checkup. I (to go) to my doctor tomorrow. 2. He (to give) me a complete examination. 3. The nurse (to lead) me into one of the examination rooms. 4. I (to take off) my clothes and (to put on) a hospital gown. 5. Dr Setton (to come in), (to shake) my hand, and (to say) “hello”. 6. I (to stand) on his scale so he can measure my height and my weight. 7. He (to take) my pulse. 8. Then he (to take) my blood pressure. 9. After he takes my blood pressure, he (to take) some blood for a blood analysis. 10. He (to examine) my eyes, ears, nose and throat. 11. He (to listen) to my heart with a stethoscope. 12. Then he (to take) a chest X-ray and (to do) a cardiogram (EKG). 13. After the check up I (to go) home and (to wait) for Dr Setton’s call. 14. Dr Setton (to call) me tomorrow afternoon and (to say) to me: “Stop worrying! Your blood analysis is excellent.” He is a very good doctor.
Упражнение II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite.
1. I (to play) chess tomorrow. 2. I (not to play) chess tomorrow. 3. You (to play) chess tomorrow? 4. He (to play) chess every day. 5. He (not to play) chess every day. 6. He (to play) chess every day? 7. They (to play) chess now. 8. They (not to play) chess now. 9. They (to play) chess now? 10. Nick (to go) to the park now. 11. Nick (to go) to school every day. 12. Nick (to go) to school tomorrow. 13. I (to miss) your excellent cooking! 14. You ever (to buy) presents? 15. You (to think) it (to be) easy or difficult to choose the right presents for people? 16. What present your mother (to receive) for her next birthday? 17. A.: The weather (to be) unpredictable these days. B.: Well, maybe it (to be) warm and sunny. A.: It (to get) cold, and look at those clouds. I (to think) it (to be) cold and damp. B.: You (to be) right. It (to get) cold. My feet (to freeze). You (to know), it might snow. A.: You never (to know). They (to say) fog (to cover) the area early tomorrow morning. It (to clear) and (to become) sunny by noon. So it might be beautiful this afternoon, too. B.: You (to kid)? I (to freeze). Where (to be) the bus? We (to wait) for the bus now. We always (to wait) for the bus. And tomorrow we (to wait) for the bus, too.
Упражнение III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite.
1. You (to come) to my place next Sunday? 2. You (to read) this book next week? 3. You (to read) books every day? 4. You (to read) a book now? 5. I (not to see) him tomorrow. 6. What you (to do) tomorrow? 7. What your friend (to do) tomorrow? 8. Where you (to go) next summer? 9. Where you (to go) every morning? 10. Where you (to go) now? 11. Look! Mary (to dance). 12. She (to dance) every day. 13. She (to dance) tomorrow? 14. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow. 15. We (to go) to school in the morning. 16. Look! Kate (to go) to school. 17. You (to help) your mother tomorrow? 18. I (not to play) the guitar now. 19. My brother (to play) the guitar every evening. 20. They (not to work) in the garden next summer. 21. You (to like) apples? 22. You (to eat) apples tomorrow? 23. Nick (to read) many books. 24. Mother (to work) every day. 25. He (not to sleep) now. 26. Your brother (to go) to the exhibition next Sunday? 27. We (not to go) to the zoo tomorrow. 28. I not (to learn) the poem now. 29. She (to live) in San Francisco. 30. My father (to shoot) very well. 31. He is very strong. Look! He (to carry) a very heavy box.
Упражнение IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в нужном времени.
1. Before you (to cross) the park, you will come to a supermarket. 2. When you (to cross) the park, you will see the hospital. 3. If you (to translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my report. 4. If she (to be) in St. Petersburg now, she will meet you at the railway station. 5. If you (not to hurry), you will miss the train. 6. If it (to rain), we shan’t go to the country. 7. When my friend (to come) to St. Petersburg, we shall go to the Russian Museum. 8. What will you be doing when he (to come) to your place? 9. Don’t forget to pay for your dinner before you (to leave) the canteen. 10. I shall be able to translate this article if you (to give) me a dictionary. 11. You will have to work hard at home if you (to miss) the lesson. 12. Where will you go when you (to come) to London? 13. The child won’t be healthy if you (not to give) him much fruit. 14.1 shan’t have dinner before mother (to come) home. 15. What will you do if you (not to finish) your homework tonight? 16. What will he do if his TV set (to break)?
Упражнение V. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite. (Все предложения относятся к будущему времени)
1. If I (to stay) some more days in your town, I (to call) on you and we (to have) a good talk. 2. He (to go) to the Public Library very often when he (to be) a student. 3. As soon as I (to return) from school, I (to ring) you up. 4. You (to pass) many towns and villages on your way before you (to arrive) in Moscow. 5. I (to stay) at home till she (to come). Then we (to go) to the theatre if she (to bring) tickets. 6. After I (to finish) school, I (to enter) University. 7. When he (to return) to St. Petersburg, he (to call on) us. 8. If I (to see) him, I (to tell) him about their letter. 9. We (to gather) at our place when my brother (to come) back from Africa. 10. I (to sing) this song with you if you (to tell) me the words. 11. I hope you (to join) us when we (to gather) in our country house next time. 12. What you (to do) when you (to come) home? 13. When they (to cross) the road, they (to see) the hotel. 14. Before she (to get) to the theatre, she (to go) past shopping centre. 15. What we (to do) if it (to rain) tonight? 16. What she (to do) if she (to see) her best friend again? 17. If the bus (to be) very crowded, you (to be) exhausted by the time you (to get) to work. 18. If it (to be) very cold tonight, our car (not to start) in the morning.
Упражнение VI. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite. (Все предложения относятся к будущему времени)
1. If the weather (to be) nice, we probably (to go) to the beach. 2. If he still (to have) a cold and (not to feel) better, he (not to go) to a disco. 3. If you (to decide) to forget about your diet, you (to eat) a wedding cake tomorrow. 4. If I (to drink) too much champagne at my friend's wedding, I (to get) a bad headache. 5. If they (to go) to California next year, they (to visit) his friend in San Francisco. 6. If she (not to work) properly, her boss (to fire) her and (to hire) my sister. 7. I (to see) you before you (to start)? 8. What he (to do) when he (to come) home? 9. Where they (to go) if the weather (to be) fine? 10. He (to ring) me up when he (to return) home. 11. If it (to rain), we (to stay) at home. 12. She (to walk) home if it (not to be) too cold. 13. I am sure he (to come) to say goodbye to us before he (to leave) St. Petersburg. 14. Please turn off the light when you (to leave) the room. 15. If we (to be) tired, we (to stop) at a small village halfway to Moscow and (to have) a short rest and a meal there. 16. If you (to miss) the 10.30 train, there is another at 10.35. 17. She (to make) all the arrangements about it before she (to fly) there. 18. Before he (to start) for London, he (to spend) a week or two at a health resort not far from here.
Упражнение VII. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite. (Все предложения относятся к будущему времени)
1. My grandmother is superstitious. She always says to me: “If you (to spill) salt, you should throw a little salt over your left shoulder. If you (not to do) this, you (to have) bad luck. If you (to break) a mirror, you (to have) bad luck for seven years.” 2. I (not to speak) to him until he (to apologize). 3. Peter (to introduce) us to his friends as soon as we (to meet) them. 4. We (to go) to the station to meet Sergey when he (to come) to St. Petersburg. 5. Don’t go away until mother (to come) back. Give her the note as soon as she (to come). 6. You (to go) to the library with us? – No. I (to stay) here and (to help) Jane with her grammar. I (to come) to the library after I (to finish). 7. Ring me up before you (to come). 8. I (to speak) to Mary if I (to see) her today. 9. If you (to ask) me a difficult question, I (to be) nervous. If I (to be) nervous, I (to make) a mistake. If I (to make) a mistake, the other students (to laugh) at me. If the other students (to laugh) at me, I (to be) embarrassed. And if I (to be) embarrassed, I (to cry). So please don’t ask me a difficult question!
Упражнение VIII. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite, Present Continuous или Future Indefinite.
1. Don’t go out: it (to rain) heavily. 2. Take your raincoat with you. I am afraid it (to rain) in the evening and you (to get) wet through if you (not to put on) your raincoat. 3. Every spring birds (to come) to our garden and (to sing) in the trees. 4. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room. 5. It usually (not to snow) at this time of the year. 6. What the weather (to be) like now? It (to snow)? – No, it (not to snow). 7. We (to go) out of town to ski on Sunday? – Yes, we ... – If it (to snow) this week and if there (to be) a lot of snow everywhere. 8. What you (to do) tomorrow? – We (to go out) of town if the weather (not to change) for the worse. You (to come) with us? – With pleasure if only I (not to have) too much work to do at home. 9. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain). A cold wind often (to blow). 10. The weather (to be) fine today. It (to be) warm, the sun (to shine) brightly. A soft wind (to blow). Small white clouds (to sail) in the sky. 11. If we (to have) TV-sets at our supermarket, they (to inform) customers about things in the store. 12. If we (to play) music, it (to produce) the right atmosphere. 13. If we (to put in) cameras, they (to stop) people stealing things. 14. If we (to employ) more assistants, they (to help) our customers.
Упражнение IX. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present или Future Indefinite.
1. Он сделает упражнения по английскому языку через час, если у него не будет других дел. 2. Если я не помогу ему, он не напишет контрольную работу завтра. 3. Он не пойдет в библиотеку сегодня вечером. 4. Если он не пойдет в библиотеку, он будет дома. Мы будем дома завтра. 6. Если мы будем дома завтра, мы посмотрим эту программу по телевизору. 7. Ее не будет завтра дома. 8. Если ее не будет завтра дома, оставьте ей записку. 9. Завтра погода будет хорошая. 10. Если завтра погода будет хорошая, мы поедем за город. 11. Когда она приходит в школу, она снимает пальто. 12. Когда она придет в школу, она снимет пальто. 13. Как только он вспоминает эту смешную сцену, он начинает смеяться. 14. Как только он вспомнит эту смешную сцену, он начнет смеяться. 15. Я приду домой в шесть часов. 16. Когда я приду домой, я позвоню вам. 17. Она позвонит нам вечером. 18. Если она позвонит вам, попросите ее принести мне книгу. 19. Я увижу Тома завтра. 20. Как только я увижу Тома, я расскажу ему об этом. 21. Я поеду в Париж на будущей неделе. 22. Перед тем, как я поеду в Париж, я позвоню вам.
Упражнение X. Знаете ли вы какие-нибудь предрассудки? Обсудите их на занятии.
Many people believe that you'll have GOOD luck
if you find a four-leaf clover,
if you find a horseshoe,
if you give a new pair of shoes to a poor person.
You'll have BAD luck
if a black cat walks in front of you,
if you walk under a ladder,
if you open an umbrella in your house,
if you put your shoes on a table,
if you light three cigarettes with one match.
Here are some other superstitions.
If your right eye itches, you’ll laugh soon.
If your left eye itches, you’ll cry soon.
If your right ear itches, somebody is saying good things about you.
If your left ear itches, somebody is saying bad things about you.
If a knife falls, a man will visit you soon.
If a fork falls, a woman will visit you soon.
If a spoon falls, a baby or a fool will visit you soon.
If you break a mirror, you’ll have bad luck for seven years.
If you spill salt, you should throw a little salt over your left shoulder. If you don't, you'll have bad luck.
НАСТОЯЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ
(THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE)
Упражнение I. Переделайте данные предложения в отрицательные и утвердительные.
1. I have heard much about the play. 2. You have done this exercise well. 3. He has lived abroad for a long time. 4. We have known them for half a year. 5. He has been in Calcutta since September. 6. They have studied Arabian for 6 years. 7. She has been married for 2 years. 8. The students have finished to prepare for the seminar. 9. I have left my text-book at home. 10. They have finished the work on time.
Упражнение II. Составьте к каждому предложению 4 типа вопросов.
1. We have already seen the film. 2. They have already heard the story. 3. We have already met this man somewhere. 4. Ann has already listened to the new record. 5. They have already passed their exams. 6. She has just explained the rule to you. 7. She has just agreed to join us. 8. I have already reminded you about the meeting. 9. Mary has just told me the news. 10. The postman has already brought the mail. 11. Lucy has already taken her brother to the kindergarten. 12. We have just warned you of the danger. 13. He has just received the sad news. 14. Mother has already sent for the doctor. 15. Bill has just called for the taxi. 16. They have just agreed to our plan.
Упражнение III. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. You haven’t spoken to him yet. 2. You haven’t heard the news yet. 3. They haven’t followed my advice yet. 4. Peter hasn’t been to Paris yet. 5. Alice hasn’t taken the medicine yet. 6. I haven’t promised you anything yet. 7. Susan hasn’t got used to this climate yet. 8. The students haven’t got used to the new teacher yet. 9. The sky hasn’t cleared up yet. 10. We haven’t cleared up the question yet. 11. The river hasn’t frozen yet. 12. The pools haven’t dried up yet. 13. The temperature hasn’t changed yet. 14. The sun hasn’t risen yet. 15. It hasn’t stopped raining yet.
Упражнение IV. Выразите удивление.
Model: A. I've known him since I was a child.
B. Have you really known him that long?
1. I’ve lived in Glasgow since 1990. 2. He’s studied Spanish for 5 years. 3. We’ve been good friends since we studied at school. 4. They’ve been married for some years. 5. He’s known his boss for many years. 6. I’ve read this amusing story for a few hours.
Упражнение V. Ответьте на вопросы.
Model: A. How long have you been here? (for 6 months)
B. I’ve been here for 6 months.
1. How long has he lived in Riga? (since August) 2. How long have you learnt these rules? (for a week) 3. How long have they studied Turkish? (since they entered College) 4. How long have you written your annual paper? (for a term) 5. How long have you been engaged? (since we finished high school). 6. How long have you wanted to be an actress? (since I saw “Gone with the Wind”) 7. How long has your brother been married? (since he graduated from University) 8. How long has Geffrey been interested in French history? (since he visited Paris) 9. How long has Mary’s leg hurt? (since she fell down on the sidewalk last week) 10. How long have you liked Jazz? (since I was a teenager)
Упражнение VI. Задайте специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.
1. I have made my report. 2. I have begun my work. 3. I have carried out the work which our teacher gave us. 4. They have attended the meeting. 5. I have invited them to our place. 6. I have taken part in the experiment. 7. We have written the letter to our parents. 8. He has learnt French. 9. She has been to London this year. 10. She has gone for a walk. 11. I have visited the Ankara suburbs. 12. I have forgotten the word.
Упражнение VII. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Я никогда не был в этом театре. 2. Мы только что говорили с ним об этом. 3. Он только что ушел. 4. Собрание только что началось. 5. Моя сестра еще не пришла из магазина. 6. Мы уже просмотрели журналы и газеты. 7. В этом семестре никто из студентов нашей группы не болел. 8. Она всегда присутствовала на лекциях, семинарах и практических занятиях. 9. Я уже показал ему дорогу к метро. 10 . Я не видел фильм «Унесенные Ветром». 11. Извините, я забыл вашу фамилию. 12. Они не были в театре с прошлого года. 13. Мы не видели его в последнее время. 14. На этой неделе он не посещал занятий. 15. Я никогда не плавал в море. 16. За последнее время она перевела на английский язык несколько статей по архитектуре. 17. Мы еще не обсуждали этот вопрос. 18. Мой сын только что ушел в армию. 19. Она несколько раз приходила сюда в последнее время. 20. Эти часы всегда правильно показывали время.
Упражнение VIII. Задайте вопросы, чтобы получить дополнительную информацию. Употребите слова, данные в скобках.
1. I haven’t been to Brussels for a long time. (where, who)
2. The space has long attracted man’s attention. (why)
3. I’ve known this poem since childhood. (what else)
4. They have been married for such a long time! (how long)
5. I’ve always liked him. (why)
Упражнение IX. Выразите несогласие.
Model 1: A. You’ve always been good friends, I believe.
B. No, we haven’t.
1.You’ve studied Chinese for a long time, I believe. 2. He’s lived in Odessa since November, I think. 3. They’ve been engaged for three months as far as I know. 4. You’ve known us since you entered University as far as I know. 5. He has been ill for a long time, I’m afraid.
Model 2: A. You’ve never been good friends, I’m afraid.
B. Yes, we have.
1. You haven’t known him for long, I think. 2. He hasn’t studied German for long, I believe. 3. You’ve never liked yellow roses, I’m afraid. 4. This subject has never attracted your attention as far as I know. 5. They haven’t been married for long, I believe.
Упражнение X. Ответьте на вопросы.
Model 1. A. Can you tell us anything about this film? (Yes/see)
B. Yes, I can. I have already seen it.
Model 2. A. Can you tell us anything about this film? (No/see)
B. No, I cannot. I haven’t seen it yet.
1. Can you describe John’s appearance? (No/see)
2. Can you retell the story? (Yes/read)
3. Can you repeat his words? (Yes/hear)
4. Can you recognize her? (Yes/see twice)
5. Can you tell us the news? (No/hear)
6. Can you show me your translation? (No/finish)
7. Can you recite the poem? (Yes/learn)
8. Can you show me your paper? (No/write)
9. Can you lend me the textbook? (No/do exercises)
10.Can you lend me the dictionary? (No/look up the new words)
11.Can you describe the place to me? (Yes/be there three times)
12.Can you say anything about his article? (No/read)
13.Can you tell me how Ann looks? (No/see)
Упражнение XI. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Она уже окончила институт? 2. Мы уже сдали проекты (submit the designs). 3. Я только что послал письмо своей тете. 4. Он никогда не был в Испании. 5. Вы были когда-нибудь в этом музее? 6. Они еще не слышали эту новость. 7. Вы ходили кататься на лыжах в последнее время? 8. Мой брат не навещал нас с Нового года.
Упражнение XII. Измените косвенную речь на прямую по образцу.
Model: John says he has not been to his hometown since he was a child.
I haven’t been to my hometown since I was a child.
1. Roger says he has not met his schoolmates since he finished school.
2. Kate says she has not spoken to her sister since last Friday.
3. Robert says he has not heard from Paul since he left for Paris.
4. Peter says he has not visited his grandparents for three weeks.
5. Alice says she hasn’t heard of her cousin since she left Bonn.
6. Ann says she has not received any letters from her relatives for a year.
7. Bob says he has not got any news of them since they graduated from University.
8. Barbara says she has not met Ann for a fortnight.
9. Timmy says he has not been sick since he was ten.
10.Mildred says the dog hasn't had anything to eat for four days.
Упражнение XIII. Отреагируйте на утверждение.
Model 1: – Ann has been to Warsaw. (I)
– So have I.
Model 2: – Ann has never been to Warsaw. (I)
– I have never been to Warsaw either.
1. Nick has never read this poem. (you) 2. We have never heard of this writer. (I) 3. Kate has always spoken at the meetings. (he) 4. Ann has never skied in the mountains. (we) 5. Bill has never hurt anybody’s feelings. (she) 6. We have never been to the Caucasus. (they) 7. Mary has always taken part in amateur performances. (I) 8. Nora has never missed her lectures. (we) 9. We have doubted this story. (you) 10. Tom has never made any mistakes in spelling. (she) 11. Rose has never tried to write poetry. (you) 12. Timmy has never recorded his voice. (they) 13. Paul has never consulted the doctor about his health. (he) 14. Jane has always had such bad headaches. (you) 15. John has never taken part in competitions. (she)
Упражнение XIV. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Недавно они устроили две художественные выставки. (art exhibitions) 2. Мы не получали от них никаких известий с тех пор, как они уехали в Англию. 3. Я уже сделал свою работу. 4. Мы уже написали наши курсовые работы. (term papers) 5. Они вернулись сегодня. 6. Мой отец только что уехал в свой родной город. 7. Я не видел друга с праздников. 8. Я еще не закончил поливать цветы. 9. Ты когда-нибудь был в Омске? 10. Я не смотрел программы со среды. 11. Моя мама еще не приготовила ужин. 12. Ты голоден? – Нет, я только что позавтракал. 13. Мы не читали книг этого автора в оригинале. 14. В последнее время я был очень занят. 15. Извините, я забыл принести вам эту статью.
Упражнение XV. Ответьте на вопросы сначала положительно (“too”), а затем отрицательно (“either”).
Model 1: I have seen this film. What about Rose? Rose has seen the film too.
Model 2: I haven’t read this novel. What about Paul? Paul hasn’t read the novel either.
1. I have seen the performance. What about Ann? 2. I haven’t spoken to the secretary. What about Pat? 3. We haven’t agreed to their plan. What about Jane? 4. They haven’t agreed with them. What about Susan? 5. I have consulted my parents on the matter. What about Alice? 6. I haven’t consulted the lawyer on this matter. What about you? 7. I have missed the 7 o’clock train. What about them? 8. You haven’t missed any lectures on history. What about your fellow-students? 9. I have followed the doctor’s advice. What about her? 10. I haven’t given up sports. What about Jack? 11. Nick hasn’t found out the timetable. What about Nick’s father? 12. I have looked up these words in the dictionary. What about Ted? 13. I haven’t changed my mind about our trip. What about Bill? 14. We have made up our minds to take up Italian next term. What about you?
Упражнение XVI. Расширьте предложения, сказав, что вы не делали того же самого на этой неделе, в этом месяце/году, сегодня, недавно и пр.
Modal: I saw him last week.
I saw him last week, but I haven’t seen him this week.
1. I bought some books last month. 2. He went to the Crimea last year. 3. Ann met some of her friends last week. 4. Ted consulted the doctor last week. 5. Nick spoke to us about the matter yesterday. 6. They recorded some songs two days ago. 7. Jane took her little sister to school yesterday. 8. The teacher explained a few grammar rules to us last month. 9. The pupils learned some poems by Burns last year. 10. Tom missed some lectures last term. 11. Mary got a good grade in English last week. 12. I saw her at the lesson four days ago. 13. We reminded him of his promise yesterday. 14. Susan visited her grandparents a year ago.
Упражнение XVII. Измените косвенную речь на прямую.
Model: Ask your friend if he has done the task and when he did it.
– Have you done the task? When did you do it?
Ask your friend if:
1. ... he has really seen the film and when he saw it. 2. ... he has already sent the telegram to his mother and when he sent it. 3. ... he has read the article on the international situation in “New York Times” and when he read it. 4. ... he has already spoken to the dean and when he spoke to him/her. 5. ... he has already bought a new edition of the RUSSIAN-SPANISH dictionary and when he bought it. 6. ... she has listened to the new records and when she listened to them. 7. ... she has introduced Ann to her parents and when she did it. 8. ... she has looked through the papers and when she did it. 9. ... the cat has already eaten and when it ate. 10. ... he has already been to the exhibition and when he was there.
Упражнение XVIII. Ответьте на вопросы, употребляя Past Indefinite или Present Perfect.
1. When did you see the screen-version of “Oliver Twist”? (last month) 2. When did you read Green’s new book? (this month) 3. When did you finish school? (last year) 4. When did your sister graduate from University? (this month) 5. When did Peter meet his school-mates? (last Sunday) 6. When were you at the cinema last? (this year) 7. When did you see the doctor last? (last week) 8. When did you speak to your teacher about your paper? (today) 9. When did Ann finish her translation? (five days ago) 10. When did you give your report on current events? (yesterday) 11. When did you copy all the exercises? (last Monday) 12. When did you learn the news? (today) 13. When did your brother recover? (a week ago) 14. When did your teacher tell you about the test? (recently) 15. When did Kate remind you of the meeting? (a day ago)
Упражнение XIX. Употребите Past Indefinite или Present Perfect.
1. I (to be) never to the city. 2. I (to be) in the city last year. 3. You (to be) in England last year? 4. We (to finish) already our design. 5. You (to be) ever to Russia. 6. I (to finish) my design last week. 7. I (to see) the dean today. 8. I (to see) the dean last week. 9. When you (to finish) school? 10. You (to read) this book? 11. When you (to read) this book? 12. I (to see) just him, he must be somewhere here. 13. We (to make) three reports this month. 14. I (to make) the report a few days ago. 15. He already (to graduate) from University.
Упражнение XX. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
А. 1.Вы уже видели новый фильм? 2. Когда вы были в Мадриде? 3. Вы когда-нибудь были в Лондоне? 4. Мой брат никогда не был в Новосибирске. 5. Инженер только что ушел домой. 6. Я не приготовил домашнее задание. 7. Когда вы принимали участие в Олимпийских играх? 8. Он когда-нибудь принимал участие в каких-нибудь состязаниях? 9. Она опоздала на этой неделе. 10. В последнее время он очень занят. 11. Извините, я забыла отослать письмо. 12. Она начала переводить статью неделю назад. Разве она ещё не закончила?
Б. 1. Кто читал газету? 2. Кто купил билеты? 3. Кто уехал за город? 4. Кто остался дома? 5. Кто осматривал достопримечательности? 6. Вы прочитали книгу? 7. Вы уже пообедали? 8. Вы уже посетили выставку? 9. Вы уже рассказали им об этих событиях? 10. Он только что уехал. 11. Он только что поблагодарил их за помощь. 12. Они только что показали нам дворец. 13. Мы только что спрашивали их об этом.
В. 1. Я еще не слушал последних известий. 2. Мы еще не проводили этого эксперимента. 3. Они еще не выполнили этого задания. 4. Какую книгу вы взяли в библиотеке? 5. Какой язык вы решили изучать? 6. Какую пьесу они решили поставить? 7. Я оставил книгу в читальном зале. 8. Мы собираемся перевести эту статью. – Я уже перевела ее. 9. Они решили приготовить ужин. – Мы его уже приготовили. 10. Он никогда не путешествовал по морю. – И я тоже.
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Последнее изменение: Среда, 24 Октябрь 2018, 17:05